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Roses: Plant and Flower Facts, Photos, and Symbolic Meanings

The beauty of roses

The beauty of roses

Beautiful and Useful Flowers

Roses are beautiful flowers that have long been a symbol of love. They belong to the genus Rosa, which exists in both wild and cultivated forms. A wonderful variety of cultivated roses exist today. Flowers of many different colors are available. Some produce an enchanting fragrance to add to their attraction.

Roses have been admired by humans since ancient times. They are useful plants as well as being ornamental. An aromatic and flavorful oil can be extracted from their petals. The oil has culinary and cosmetic uses. Rose water captures the essence of the flowers in a more dilute form but is still valuable. The fruits of the plants, or rose hips, can be a useful food and also provide an oil.

Over the years, roses have come to symbolize more than love. Each of the main flower colors is associated with a particular symbolic meaning. For people interested in giving a gift of flowers, these meanings may be significant.

A pink rose

A pink rose

Fossil evidence suggests that the first wild roses appeared at least 35 million years ago. Cultivation of the flowers is thought to have begun about 5,000 years ago and most likely started in China.

Leaf and Flower Facts

Roses are lovely flowers that are appreciated by many people. The huge variety of roses that are available can be confusing. The flowers and plants vary in color, appearance, fragrance, blooming frequency, and growth habit. Nevertheless, they do have some features in common.


The plant that bears the blossoms is generally referred to as a rose bush (a term that is also written as rosebush). The bushes are deciduous and lose their leaves in the fall. Some keep their leaves for longer than others, however. The plants are perennials and produce new leaves in the next growing season.

The bushes have pinnately compound leaves. Each leaf has one leaflet at the tip and paired leaflets pointed to the sides. The number of leaflets varies. The leaves are attached to the plant in an alternate pattern, though some exceptions exist. Rose bushes often have prickles or thorns, which is something to watch out for if a plant is touched.


Each of the flowers on a bush has multiple stamens (the male structures) and multiple carpels (the female structures). A stamen consists of an anther that contains pollen and a stalk called a filament. Pollen grains contain sperm cells. A carpel has a stigma at the top, which catches released pollen grains, a stalk called a style, and an ovary at the base. An ovary contains ovules, which each contain an egg cell. Once an egg cell is fertilized by the sperm from a pollen grain, the ovule becomes a seed.

Facts About Pollination

Some kinds of roses have so many petals that it's hard for insects to reach a stigma of a carpel in order to pollinate it. Cross-pollination (obtaining pollen from a different plant in the species or variety) often occurs in roses, but self-pollination occurs in the group as well. The flowers are pollinated by insects, hummingbirds, and wind as well as artificially by humans. If pollination doesn't happen, hips won't form.

Rose hips and leaves

Rose hips and leaves

Features of Rose Hips

A fruit is a ripened ovary that is adapted in some way to release the seeds. A rose hip is widely referred to as a fruit (as I’ve done above) because it contains seeds and because from the outside it looks like a ripened ovary. Technically, however, it’s a hypanthium or a floral cup. The hypanthium surrounds and bears the basal parts of the floral structures. The oval structures in the photo of a hypanthium below are ovaries, not ovules. The stalks extending from them are the styles of the ovaries.

Rose hips are orange or red when ripe. They are edible, though some are more palatable than others. They frequently taste like apples. Roses and apples belong to the same botanical family (the Rosaceae family). Some people use the hips to make jam or jelly.

The hypanthium and ovaries in a member of the genus Rosa

The hypanthium and ovaries in a member of the genus Rosa

If you decide to forage for wild rose hips, make sure that you are positive about a plant's identification, that it's growing in an area free of pollutants and pesticides, and that some hips are left for birds to eat and for the plant's reproduction.

Types of Roses

Different classification systems for roses exist. A common one divides the plants into three main categories. Each category is subdivided into smaller groups. The main categories are:

  1. Wild or species roses (flowers with a single layer of petals; includes wild roses and their close but cultivated relatives)
  2. Old garden roses (cultivated flowers that existed before the creation of the hybrid tea rose in 1867, with the exception of the species roses)
  3. Modern garden roses (the hybrid tea rose and later creations)

Cultivated roses may have single or double petals. The single roses have one row of four to eight petals that spread outwards, revealing the stamens and carpels in the middle of the flower. These flowers resemble the wild roses with their five petals. Double roses have more than one row of petals that often hide the reproductive structures.

Old Garden Roses

Old garden roses are known for their delightful scent. In general, they are sturdy plants that are easier to care for than modern types. They also tend to have less vibrant colours. Nevertheless, there seems to be renewed interest in the plants due to their valued features.

Despite the term "old" in their name, the plants may have complex flowers with multiple layers of petals. Rosa mundi (shown below) and the damask rose (also shown below) belong to the old roses group. The colour of the latter flower ranges from white to deep pink. The petals are edible and are added to food. The flower is strongly associated with love.

The damask rose is appreciated for more than its beauty. It has a wonderful fragrance and is used to make rose oil, concrete, and water. The oil is extracted from the petals with the aid of steam or chemicals. Rose concrete is a solid piece of scented wax. Rose water is made by soaking petals in water.

The oil of the damask rose is used to make perfume. In Middle Eastern cuisine, rose water made from the flower is added to meat and desserts, including ice cream, rice pudding, and jam. I know rose water best for its use in Turkish delight. This lovely gelatinous treat is often sold in the form of a square or oblong dusted with icing sugar (also known as powdered or confectioner’s sugar). The treat is sometimes coated with chocolate.

A cultivar of Rosa gallica officinalis, often known as "Rosa mundi"

A cultivar of Rosa gallica officinalis, often known as "Rosa mundi"

Modern Types

The modern roses group is very large. Some examples of categories in the group are described below.

  • Hybrid Tea: has the typical flower that most people think of when they hear the word "rose" or when they go to a florist to buy roses as a gift; in general, the flower is a single bloom borne on a long stem
  • Polyantha: has small flowers borne in thick clusters
  • Floribunda: created by a cross between hybrid tea roses and polyantha ones; generally has small flowers borne in clusters; the bush and flowers tend to be larger than those of polyantha roses
  • Grandiflora: created by a cross between hybrid tea roses and floribunda ones; the flowers are generally large and may be borne in clusters or singly on a long stem
  • Climbing: have long, flexible stems that can be "trained" to climb and drape attractively over trellises, fences, and walls
  • Miniature: has very small blossoms and can be grown in tight places such as containers, rock gardens, and borders

I took all of the photos in the thumbnail collection below in different rose gardens near my home. The gardens are a special treat when the flowers are in bloom. I love examining and photographing the flowers and the fruits. The color and/or scent of the flowers is sometimes enticing.

Oil and Fragrance

Rose petals from many species are used to make an oil or scented water. The oil is sometimes known as attar of roses. The oil and the water are used to flavor foods and provide a delightful aroma to perfumes and cosmetics.

In some countries, extracting the oil from rose petals is a major industry. Flowers that are especially aromatic are chosen for this extraction. Steam distillation is commonly used to obtain the oil, but solvent extraction is used by some oil producers.

When considering whether to buy a product, it's important to distinguish between rose oil and rose hip (or rosehip) oil. The pleasant scent is provided by the first product, not the second. Both oils are added to cosmetics. Scientists are still investigating the products to determine whether they offer benefits for our body.

Roses were very popular in Ancient Rome. Their petals were strewn on the floor as a carpet during celebrations. They were also used as confetti, in perfume and cosmetics, and for medicinal purposes.

Black, Blue, and Green Roses

Cultivated roses have a gorgeous array of colors. No black or blue roses exist, however. Breeders are trying hard to create them, but the colors are proving to be elusive.

Although no truly black rose exists, some dark red or deep purple ones may come close to being black in appearance. (The photos of pure black roses seen on some websites are photoshopped.) Similarly, no truly blue rose exists, although some mauve or lavender ones may look almost blue.

A green rose does exist (Rosa chinensis viridiflora). The rows of green "petals" of the flower are actually sepals, however. In most flowers, the sepals are green, leaf-like structures found directly underneath the flower. They protect the flower bud before it opens. The green rose has no stamens or stigma, doesn't produce seeds, and is propagated by cuttings.

This green rose has sepals but no petals.

This green rose has sepals but no petals.

The Color of Roses - A Poll

A lovely cluster of flowers in my neighbourhood

A lovely cluster of flowers in my neighbourhood

Rose Colors and Their Symbolic Meanings

A rose color can have a different meaning for different people. Often people like a color simply because it's beautiful. It's fun to look at the traditional meanings of the colors, though.

  • Red: romantic love
  • Pink: gratitude and appreciation
  • Orange: desire and passion
  • Yellow: friendship
  • Lavender: enchantment or love at first sight
  • White: innocence or purity of love

Today, red roses are a frequent symbol of true love and are a traditional Valentine's Day gift. In the past, white roses were used to symbolize love. Even today, the white flowers are often referred to as "bridal roses" and are used at weddings. They're also used to express love for a deceased person at a funeral.

Symbolic Meanings in the Past

Roses have had many symbolic meanings in history. In Britain in the “Wars of the Roses,” the symbol of the House of Lancaster was a red rose and that of the House of York a white one. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the conflict lasted from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster married Elizabeth of York, uniting the two factions. The roses were combined to create the Tudor Rose, which is the emblem of England.

The modern term "sub rosa," which means "under the rose," is used to describe a secret or confidential meeting. It's believed to have originated from the Ancient Roman habit of hanging a rose over a table where people were having a private discussion.

A beautiful blossom

A beautiful blossom

Lovely Blooms in Gardens and the Wild

All roses are beautiful, but not all of them have strong fragrances. Many different types are available in flower stores and nurseries. Breeding and growing roses is enjoyed by both professionals and by hobbyists. The flowers are loved by many people.

Roses in bloom are a joy to see in a home garden, a botanical or rose garden, or a landscaped area. I enjoy seeing the flowers and hips on both wild and cultivated bushes near my home. Though I would rather see them in planted form, the cut flowers sold in stores make lovely and often much-appreciated gifts. The large variety of roses available today is a testament to the popularity of the plants. I think their fame is well deserved.


  • Information about rose plants from the Encyclopedia Britannica
  • Facts about the corolla (the petals as a group) of a flower, including a mention of the hypanthium from the Encyclopedia Britannica
  • The History of Roses (as well as other information about the plants) from University of Illinois Extension
  • Sub rosa information from the Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  • Types of Roses from FTD (Florists' Transworld Delivery)

© 2013 Linda Crampton


Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 19, 2020:

They are lovely plants.

gloria on March 19, 2020:

Easy to grow beautiful roses

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on April 25, 2015:

Hi again, Diana. My parents didn't grow roses very often when I was a child, but some of my relatives did. I've always loved the flowers. They are so beautiful.

Diana Abrahamson on April 25, 2015:

Hi mum and grandmother had roses in their gardens..always made an impression on me!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on April 25, 2015:

Hi, Diana. Thanks for the comment. I love roses of all colours! They are such beautiful flowers.

Diana Abrahamson on April 25, 2015:

Love your rose hub. They are so rewarding to grow in the garden. Also love the subtle scent of my white ones!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on April 19, 2015:

Thank you very much, vasantha T k.

vasantha T k on April 19, 2015:

Beautiful roses , enjoyed the different colours of Roses. It's lovely.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on February 12, 2015:

Thank you, poetryman6969.

poetryman6969 on February 12, 2015:

Love the beautiful flowers!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on November 20, 2014:

Thank you, VioletteRose. I appreciate your visit. I love roses, too!

VioletteRose from Atlanta on November 20, 2014:

I love most of the flowers, and roses are among my most favourite flowers. Your pictures are all so pretty, thanks for sharing :)

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on August 23, 2013:

Thank you very much, Eddy! I appreciate the vote and the share. Roses are beautiful flowers. Like you, I love to photograph them.

I hope you have a great day as well!

Eiddwen from Wales on August 23, 2013:

This is truly beautiful and I vote up and share. I have two mini roses and have taken many photos of each and each one as beautiful as the last.

Here's to so many more and enjoy your day.


Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 30, 2013:

Thank you so much for the visit and the lovely comment, Martie. Thanks for sharing the interesting information about the production of rose oil in Egypt, too. Your visit to Cairo must have been very interesting!

Martie Coetser from South Africa on June 30, 2013:

What an excellent hub about roses! All flowers are beautiful, but roses take the cake. During a visit to a perfume factory in Cairo, I was amazed to hear that Egypt are the, or one of the, biggest exporters of rose oil, and some other flowers as well.

Beautiful, well-written hub, thank you, Alicia. Oh, and the pictures of roses are just too beautiful for words.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 30, 2013:

Thank you, DDE. I appreciate the votes!

Devika Primić from Dubrovnik, Croatia on June 30, 2013:

Roses are beautiful and such an interesting insight to the Symbols of Love and Flowers of Beauty, voted up, and awesome!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on June 28, 2013:

Thank you very much for the comment, the vote and the pin, torrilynn!

torrilynn on June 28, 2013:

@AliciaC i really did enjoy article! I would guess that roses are seen as love and sometimes for when someone passes because of how they have been portrayed throughout history, in books, and in movies. I love the detail in your article. I like how you give us a history behind roses and how you speak of the benefits of rose oil. Voted up and pinned !