The Common Chameleon: The Only Chameleon Found in Europe

Updated on June 6, 2019
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Steve, a.k.a. Green Beard, is an expert on nature and loves to write about wildlife and conservation. He lives in Portugal.

Meet the only chameleon that can be found in the wild in European countries—Chamaeleo chamaeleon.
Meet the only chameleon that can be found in the wild in European countries—Chamaeleo chamaeleon. | Source

Discover a Unique Lizard

I live in Portugal, which has a wide variety of fauna and flora. This is due in part to its mixture of habitats that range from mountains and forests to arid, semi-desert scrubland. There are many lizards and other reptiles in the country, and one of the most interesting is the common chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon). It is the only type of chameleon found in Europe.

How to Identify the Common Chameleon

This species is mainly some shade of green, yellowish-green or brown in colour and is mostly found living in bushes and small trees in scrubland areas. It has a prehensile tail and four-toed feet that it uses to grasp the twigs and branches it climbs on.

Why Do Chameleons Change Colour?

Like most chameleons, this species can change its skin colouration in response to light, temperature and factors that influence its mood. Scientists believe that this phenomenon is caused by the way light reflects off of specialized cells in the species' skin. Contrary to popular belief, this trait is not an attempt at camouflage but a response to environmental conditions. A colour change may occur when a chameleon is feeling threatened, is attempting to attract a mate or is trying to increase its body temperature.

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The chameleon's colouration ranges from green to brownish tones.An example of a light, sandy brown colouration.An example of a darker brown colouration.
The chameleon's colouration ranges from green to brownish tones.
The chameleon's colouration ranges from green to brownish tones. | Source
An example of a light, sandy brown colouration.
An example of a light, sandy brown colouration. | Source
An example of a darker brown colouration.
An example of a darker brown colouration. | Source

Where It Lives: From Portugal to Spain and Beyond

Also known as the Mediterranean chameleon, it is found in the warm, southern part of Portugal known as the Algarve. It also has native colonies in Crete, Cyprus and southern Spain. Although populations of this reptile can be found in other Mediterranean countries and islands, such as Italy and Malta, they are introduced rather than indigenous. Outside of Europe, it is native to parts of Morocco and North Africa, as well as several countries in the Middle East.

Map of the common chameleon's distribution.
Map of the common chameleon's distribution. | Source

The Algarve

What It Eats

Common chameleons hunt insects and spiders as food, and they enjoy eating mantises and wasps. These lizards stalk their prey and shoot out their long tongues to catch the small creatures they eat. Reportedly, they will resort to cannibalism at times and will eat smaller individuals of their own species.

In addition to hunting prey, they are said to eat a small amount of fruit.

How It Reproduces

These reptiles mostly live on their own and establish individual territories that they patrol regularly. They are happy living as solitary creatures; however, they seek out others of their own type when it's time to mate.

Common chameleons take a year or more to become sexually mature, and the females of the species are larger than the males. The mating season is from mid-July through mid-September; at these times, the males will fight over females. After mating, the females deposit clutches of eggs which they bury in the ground. These eggs need a long incubation time and can take as long as a year before they hatch.

Chameleon of the Algarve

Changing Colours

Remember, the common chameleon changes its skin colouration in response to light, temperature and factors that influence its mood—not to blend in with its surroundings.

When and How It Hibernates

The hibernation period for this species ranges from late autumn through the winter; this is when food is harder to find and the temperature drops significantly. These reptiles dig burrows in the sandy soil for shelter during hibernation.

Threats Facing This Species

The common chameleon is under threat in Portugal mostly due to habitat loss. Its habitat has shrunk due to widespread and continuing building development projects caused by an increase in tourism in the area.

These lizards are also caught to be sold as pets, but this species does not do well in captivity. Sadly, it has been observed that most caught specimens will die not long after capture. They do best in the wild!

The Chameleon in the Wild in Cyprus

© 2015 Steve Andrews


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    • profile image


      9 months ago

      We have two of these hanging on the fly curtain of our back door. We had been away for two weeks and they were in situ on our return. We have not used the door but what can I do to help them?

    • profile image

      ino sakura naruto kankuro sasuke choji shikamaru hinata kiba akamaru shino gaara temari 

      18 months ago

      I love the show naruto because it is cool and funny you should watch it

    • profile image


      18 months ago

      I love animals my name is Brielle my favorite animal is animals

    • profile image


      20 months ago

      Briliiant, thanks for this article. I spotten one while trecking in Marinha, amazing creatures to see up close.

    • profile image


      24 months ago

      Thank you for this interesting article. I just spotted one here in Faro and wanted to learn a bit more about them. Obrigado!

    • Green Bard profile imageAUTHOR

      Steve Andrews 

      5 years ago from Tenerife

      Thank you for commenting on this hub and sharing it at Pinterest and at twitter and G+!

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      5 years ago from Houston, Texas

      I hope that people reading this will allow them to remain in the wild instead of capturing them and trying to keep them as pets. I enjoyed learning about the common chameleon from you. Pinning to my animals board and will share, tweet and g+.


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