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The Evolution of Time
TITLE: The Evolution of Time
SUMMARY: A description of the role time plays in the birth, life, and death of the universe; a description of what exists beyond the universe boundary; the role of dark energy.
AUTHOR: Daniel R. Earhart (email@example.com)
There must exist a natural, versus theological, explanation for the presence of the universe. The purpose of this article is to present a collection of integrated theories that explain the evolution of the universe. This document is important because it provides the first comprehensive explanation for the evolution of the universe – from nothing to something to nothing. This article will reveal that the birth of time is solely responsible for the big-bang. The dimension of time is merely a collapsed spatial dimension originating from the multiverse. This article includes some accepted theories to better correlate these new theories, as well as some to abandon. Also explained is the relationship between dark energy and the dimension of time.
Time’s sovereignty. The cosmos – all that exists, existed, eternally will exist. The universe – the totality of all known entities and processes whose beginning is unquestionably the most extraordinary event to occur within the cosmos. What narrative accurately describes the origination of the physical universe? Disclosure of its source will provide the conclusive answer to that heretofore unresolved mystery. A plethora of cosmogony theories exist; however, the definitive answer will be found in the emergence of time. For it was not the birth of our universe that was responsible for the origin of time as advocated in Hawking’s A Brief History of Time, it was the origin of time that gave birth to our universe; in fact, all universes – for ours is but one of an infinite number. The prevailing cosmological model for universe formation, the inflationary big-bang theory, accurately explains the primeval events immediately following the commencement of time-space (a specific variety of space) inflation and what subsequently transpired has been convincingly documented, however, an irrefutable explanation for circumstances preceding the big-bang has been insufficient.
Time provides a holistic understanding for our universes existence and evolution. Time is the explanation that unlocks the mystery of universe creation, and ultimately its death, for time is the foundational totality governing our universe. Time is symmetrically pure and mutable. It switches on at a place defined as the zero-point horizon spawned by an unimaginably powerful energy source. The evolution of time determines our destiny, for time evolves and consequently has an unambiguous origin and preordained conclusion.
Antecedent conundrum. What explains our universes quintessential earliest event, or more precisely, when did the universes clock start? The result is the same, however differently the causality is interpreted. The majority of cosmological models mandate the pre-existence of a primordial embryo which experiences a transmogrification culminating in the big-bang. Singularity theories proclaim that the initial state of the primeval universe was an infinitesimal point of infinite energy density possessing an infinite gravitational field, containing all mass, energy, space-time. Newer theories suggest a small finite point ruled by the laws of quantum mechanics where time spontaneously activates. This theoretically small region of chaotic quantum space was defined as infinitely hot, dense, of infinite space-time curvature. This entity of Planck radius 10-35 meters was believed to have ignited due to a sufficiently large positive quantum fluctuation. The singularity and quantum theories fail to account for the source of their primordial seed.
The majority of creationist theories however are contingent upon an embryonic seed to provide the foundation from which the universe emerges, one whose own origin is unexplainable. Other theories depend on branes, regeneration, or other ambiguous phenomenon. These theories are inconsistent with respect to whether time preceded or coincided with the emergence of space. Is a primordial seed the beginning of everything known – or is it more plausible that the primordial seed is not a prerequisite? The definitive solution requires no such predecessor. What existed prior to the big-bang? – simply nothing. The creation and subsequent events would impose the presence of time, and therefore the beginning of time would be indeterminate. Non-spatial time is nonsensical. The causal conundrum then is to determine whether time began before or after the big-bang, and whether this defines the absolute beginning of everything. Rejection of the predecessor is paramount to solving this profound paradox. Newer models which exclude the quantum mechanics dilemma, to include the Big Bounce and M-theory, also fail to provide an explanation for their primordial sphere.
The isotropic nature and uniformity of the background heat radiation that permeates our space suggests an extremely homogenous early universe. The large-scale smoothness of this radiation challenges the theory that the universe was created by the chaotic inflation of the singularity, one which would result in significant irregularities, rather than a universe spawned through a consistently horizontal and consistently smooth release of energy.
These theories also ineffectively account for the presence of multiple open universes subject to infinite expansion for an infinite time. An alternative presumption is that there is but one universe that will expand infinitely in time and space leaving behind an extinct and stagnant universe devoid of all light, heat, life – an abysmally unpalatable and unconvincing conclusion. The universe did expand from the zero-point horizon, but no precursor was required, for the birth of time is exclusively responsible for creating our universe.
Argument for multiple universes. A persuasive argument has been made for the existence of multiple universes. The chaotic boundary conditions and strong anthropic principle theories presume many universes, each possessing its own set of physical laws. Indeed, our universe is but one of an unlimited number of individual universes living in an infinite abyss in a sea of infinity.
It would be naïve to believe that a solitary event, the inflation of an extremely small spatial sphere, could result in the quintessential perfect combination of conditions necessary to create and sustain a place capable of supporting life. Was it merely coincidence that our universe was so finely tuned to provide the conditions necessary for the emergence of life? There is but only one viable solution – there are no alternatives. That solution does not depend upon a solitary fortuitous accident. There must have been, and continue to be, multiple attempts to achieve the perfection we observe. It is a very myopic viewpoint to believe there is but one universe, for the weak anthropic principle provides a convincing explanation for their existence.
Constants of nature evidence. The constants of nature (CoN) define the laws of nature and therefore the structure and content of individual universes giving each a unique and distinctive character – for they encode every universe. These constants are universal within the context of a single universe prescribing how nature will behave at all times and places within their time-space continuum. These numbers and values which define the CoN establish the strength of gravity, speed of light, masses of elementary particles and anti-particles, cosmological constant, and the four basic forces of nature (gravity, electricity and magnetism, radioactivity, and nuclear interactions).
Some universes have a combination of laws and physical constants suitable for the development of stars, planets, and life. Some however have been created with far different CoN values negating any possibilities for life. If the dimensionless CoN values differ sufficiently from their observed values, the universe would look very different. If the critical rate of inflation one second after the big-bang had been smaller by one part in 1017, the physical universe would have collapsed soon after the big-bang. If the strength of gravity were greater by one part in 10100, stars would burn too quickly the chemicals essential for supporting life. If the fine structure constant deviated by only a few percent, atoms could not exist. Even the smallest deviation in the nuclear forces would preclude the formation of stars and galaxies, prevent the biochemistry necessary for the formation of genetic material, and hence preclude the emergence of human life. If the CoN values differed by the smallest fractions from their observed numerical values, our universe would appear very different.
Did the CoN result in a logical consistency merely by chance or is it more plausible that we inhabit one of the universes that successfully attained the perfect equilibrium essential for our existence? Persistent reincarnations are the only sustainable explanation.
Expansion of time-space. Big-bang models differ on the method in which our nascent universe inflates and expands. Regardless of the model, the expanding universe must trace it’s beginning to an initial state of nonexistence. The force created from the big bang produced forward motion recognized as time. The big bang created all physical matter and energy which fed the growing universe. From nothingness, the time-space of the embryonic universe instantaneously inflated producing a symmetrically spatial sphere. Our observable universe of material objects is expanding at a rate of a trillion cubic light years a minute spanning approximately ninety-three million light years delineating the particle horizon. The light horizon however extends significantly beyond this particle horizon. Beyond the light horizon exists the time horizon. Advancing at a velocity far greater than the speed of light, unaffected by gravitational forces or velocity limitations, this horizon marks the outermost periphery of the universe. This cosmological horizon is defined by the dimension of time, driven by a single time scale. Our flat, homogenous, and isotropic universe has a finite amount of space enclosed within this unassailable time horizon.
Where and how were these universes created? The creation of space, time, matter, and energy will be found on the other side of our universe, for there exists an outer space, as opposed to the inner space of our universe - a universe of universes.
Mother of all universes – the multiverse. Having convincing arguments for the existence of multiple universes, what macrocosmic architecture permits their coexistence? There exists a place for these multiple universes, and this place is known as the multiverse. The multiverse exists as an unstructured state of absoluteness. It has forever existed, and consists exclusively of space – an incubator providing a birthplace for universes to spawn, mature, and ultimately evaporate. The multiverse is an asymmetrical, boundless, immeasurable vacuum; of infinite spatial existence – eternal nothingness. The multiverse has no circumference, nor does any substance or force exist within its vacuous extra-dimensional (exceeding four spatial dimensions) space. Matter, light, energy, and physical forces are all nonexistent. Universes flourish herein invisibly enshrouded in impermeable cocoons of time, existing as virtual nonentities within the multiverse.
The multiverse is quantum-less. Nothing can be counted nor measured for there are no quantities, for there exists no frame of reference. Energy, mass, length, nor time exist there. Time is relative – dependent upon the presence of motion and gravity which are nonexistent in the multiverse. The absence of the dimension of time invalidates a cosmic clock, portending eternity. There is no succession nor duration – no present, past, or future; there was no beginning nor will there be an end. The multiverse has and will always exist. The multiverse is a dark, eternal, endless place; timeless, cold, empty.
The non-relativistic space of the multiverse imposes bewildering quandaries. The laws of physics cannot be applied in the mother of all universes. Physical and mathematical constants are non-existent including the physical constants of the speed of light, the gravitational constant, PI, and Planck’s constants. All numbers and numerical expressions – real, complex, rational or irrational – are unresolvable in the timeless multiverse. Einstein’s equation E=MC2, the inverse law of gravity, in fact all equations, have no interpretation within the multiverse. The conservation laws of energy and momentum are nonexistent, as are the inverse laws of electricity and magnetism. In the absence of time, velocity cannot be calculated. Spatial representations are null and void. Distance cannot be measured and therefore any expectation to measure areas or volumes are nullified, for all coordinates diverge to infinite values. The absence of relativity negates the existence of energy and momentum. Motion, direction, velocity, and acceleration are all relativistic depending on relationships which are nonexistent in the timeless empty multiverse. Only absolutes exist within the multiverse.
Infinity and null are the only mathematical conceptions that have meaning in the multiverse. Whereas our universe is defined by finiteness, the multiverse is defined by infiniteness. Infinity rules the multiverse, whereas physical infinity is nonexistent within the bounds of the universe. The laws of physics are found within the envelope of the quantum reality universe where their origin is traced to the beginning of time.
The multiverse’s topological properties can be described as immaculate simplicity and elegance. Nature in the absence of external forces or influences will always seek the simplest alternative. The extra-dimensionality of the multiverse provides the supersymmetry which is necessary for universe formation. Here exists a state of reciprocal interpenetration where the absence of time dictates an unstructured topology.
Beginning of time. There are four prerequisites that must be satisfied by the creation event. They are the ability to – duplicate the event an infinite number of times; generate the massive amount of energy necessary for universe creation; spawn a space within which to release that energy; produce a dimension of time within the burgeoning space. If the multiverse realm consists merely of empty space, how then can something emanate from nothing, and not just any something, but an unlimited number of universes? Absolutely everything came from absolutely nothing. Not only does this source exist, it is a perpetual manifestation capable of producing inexhaustible amounts of energy. The source can only originate from within the fabric of that multiverse space. How is it possible to create a universe from empty space while unleashing an amount of energy powerful enough to produce a universe? The explanation is found within the extra-dimensionality of the multiverse. Herein something obviously materialized. Through transmutation, a veritable collapse of a multiverse spatial dimension, four dimensions to include the three spatial and one of time are produced at its zero-point horizon giving birth to the universe.
The resulting cataclysmic rupture of the extra-dimensional multiverse space generates an infusion of thermal energy at the zero-point horizon creating all physical matter and energy which feeds the continuum of our growing universe. From that original spark the newly created spatial bubble consisting of three dimensions of space and one dimension of time instantaneously expands forming the new universe. There was no explosion, merely a transformation of space generating an unfathomable amount of cosmic energy. The ingredient for creating a universe is quite simple and unassuming, yet unmistakable. That ingredient is time. The geometry of time-space at the zero-point horizon can be defined as the confluence of dark energy, thermal energy, and the cosmological constant, brought together by the emergence of the dimension of time.
What fuels this transmutation? A pure state of spatial symmetry exists within the multiverse. This supersymmetry supplies an endless source of collapsing space. Time is simply the artifact of a metamorphosed collapsed spatial dimension. This transmutation of a dimension of space is precipitated by the spontaneous breaking of nature’s symmetry. The mere state of a nonentity’s existence is in fact intrinsically unstable, prompting random and perpetual spontaneous transformations.
The chaotic and violent transmutation of time-space of the big-bang trapped an inestimable quantity of infinitesimal fragments of timeless space within the underlying fabric of the universe. This compact (consistent with the ADD model) hyperspheric space is unconsumed, static, and persistent extra-dimensional space producing depressions randomly distributed throughout the universe. The boundary of this space consists of a fuzzy quantum time-space. Matter, energy, and forces cannot penetrate the abyss of this curled up space. Extra-dimensional space does not provide a stable environment for the existence of atoms. The convergence of matter near the membrane of these anomalies results in a state of inhomogeneity. The increasing gravitational force of this material harvests additional matter producing a circumfluent spatial vortex. Herein lies the foundation for galaxy formation.
Why did the CoN take their numerical values, and what are their dependencies? – for nature’s rules are not arbitrary. In other words, what differentiates one universe from another? There is one unique variable which manifests itself during every big-bang. That variable is the amount of energy released at the zero-point horizon at time zero. Every big-bang occurrence generates its own unique proportionate quantity of energy, taking the form of primal thermal radiation, instantaneously achieving its ultimate level of energy during which all forces of nature are fused into a single force. There exists a direct and unremitting relationship between this energy and the laws, substance, and properties of each universe. This energy determines the universe’s rate of expansion, the maximum physical volume of the universe, the quantity of particles, and forges the numerical values for the fundamental CoN consisting of the gravitational constant, the special-relativistic constant, and the quantum constant. These fundamental constants are mere byproducts of the big-bang event and not pure numbers of numerological origin. The value of these constants influence the values of subordinate constants. The greater the energy released – the higher the value of thermal radiation; the greater the rate of inflation; the larger the volume of matter and radiation; the greater the universe expands; the longer the universe survives.
Timeless versus non-timeless space. What distinguishes the four-dimensional time-space of the universe from the extra-dimensional timeless space of the multiverse? The absence of an impenetrable boundary would simulate what happens to a drop of water added to a glass of water – the drop dissipates becoming indistinguishable and ceases to exist as an independent entity. The existence of multiple universes persisting simultaneously within the multiverse necessitates a mutually inaccessible periphery separating each from the infinity of the multiverse. These boundaries are not of physical construct, nor do the inherent ethereal spatial dimensions themselves separate the universes from the rest of the cosmos, for spatial dimensions exist in both the universe and multiverse, thus rendering such amorphous boundaries implausible.
There must exist an impenetrable and sovereign barrier separating these spaces. These boundaries must be malleable permitting unconstrained expansion and contraction. What are the boundary conditions that separate the time-space bubble that constitutes our evolving universe from the multiverse? The answer lies in the contrasting structures of these distinct and unambiguous spaces that prevents them from coalescing. It is the dimension of time which distinguishes the quantum space of the universe from the quantum-less space of the multiverse. The four-dimensional time-space of the universe is isolated from the non-time-space continuum of the multiverse. The dimension of time encapsulates all universes.
Termination of time. There exists a cyclicity of birth, life, and death which is inevitable in time endowed systems; for birth inherits death. The destiny of our universe – all universes – is indefatigable extinction. The stelliferous night sky will darken as stars and galaxies recede beyond our field of vision. Our sun will extinguish its nuclear fuel and burn out. Our galaxy will eventually share the same predestination. Black holes will slowly disintegrate. The unrelenting expansion of time-space will eventually rip apart particles resulting in the destruction of all matter.
The apocalyptic day of reckoning for the universe will culminate in complete annihilation of all mass, energy, and time-space. The manifestation that will precipitate its extinction is the exotic and ubiquitous dark energy, an artifact of a higher spatial dimension, maintaining a symbiotic relationship with the dimension of time. Dark energy preserved the knowledge of the emergence of the universe, appearing instantaneously with the big-bang. This force creates the forward motion known as time. The omnipresent dark energy is distributed homogeneously throughout time-space, a fundamental force producing a neutralizing force upon the expansion of the dimension of time. This energy also exerts a negative force on the dimension of space resulting in accelerated expansion. Our closed universe will eventually cease its expansion signaling the beginning of the end. Like a stretching elastic band of increasing tension, the intensity of the dark energy becomes progressively stronger on the expanding time dimension. The universe would continue to expand eternally without this dark energy force.
The tension produced by the dark energy force will slow the expansion of the time horizon eventually forcing it to halt before collapsing. In the time-symmetric universe the expansion of time-space established the directionality of the thermodynamic arrow of time from past towards future. When the time boundary collapses inward the arrow of time will reverse direction. The resulting deflation of space will begin slowly then unceasingly increase in momentum while simultaneously decreasing entropy. This cataclysmic collapse of the universe will continue unabated until time-space returns to the zero-point horizon whereupon our universe will evaporate and cease to exist. Nothing will be left behind – no sound nor flash of light; no shadow; no history of its previous existence; forever forgotten.
Eternity. The aeonian multiverse will unceasingly create an extremely diverse array of universes, resulting in all conceivable permutations – each a mere fragment of dust in the timeless infinity of the multiverse. Countless universes will be comparable to our own; others completely devoid of the circumstances necessary to accommodate conscious life. Some will have lifespans considerably longer or shorter than ours. A homeostatic environment exists within the multiverse to preserve the eternal lifecycle of redintegration for nature will preserve its equilibrium. Life is restricted to a rare combination of environments, however there will forever be places where sentient beings will persevere. Our thoughts and imagination need not be confined to our universe, for beyond its boundary lies cosmic eternity.
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© 2018 Daniel Earhart
Daniel Earhart (author) from Severn, Maryland, USA on February 27, 2020:
No. I do however need to make several updates to the essay soon. Thanks for taking the time to read it. Dan
Nigel on February 26, 2020:
Dan, an extraordinary essay. Have you written others?
Daniel Earhart (author) from Severn, Maryland, USA on May 23, 2018:
Thanks a bunch. Really appreciate it.
Fran on May 22, 2018:
Good artical Dan,Enjoyed it emensely.