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Pallas's Cat or Manul: Facts, Toxoplasmosis, and Conservation

Linda Crampton is a writer and experienced science teacher with an honors degree in biology. She enjoys writing about science and nature.

What Is a Pallas's Cat?

The Pallas's cat is roughly the size of a domestic cat. It's a wild animal and has a very distinctive appearance. It has long, dense hair on its body and cheeks, a flattened face, a low forehead, and small ears that are far apart. The cat lives in cold areas of Central Asia, where its thick coat helps to keep it warm. It's also known as the Pallas cat, the Pallas’ cat, and the manul. Though all of the animal's common names are acceptable, my research suggests that Pallas's cat is used most often, at least in North America. The scientific name of the animal is Otocolobus manul.

When I wrote the first edition of this article, the animal's population was classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Thankfully, a late 2019 assessment changed the animal’s status to “Least Concern.” The animal still faces some problems, however. Its habitat is gradually disappearing. In the past, it was hunted for its beautiful coat. Although this activity is less common today, it still occurs. Another problem for the cat is that the rodents that it eats are often regarded as pests by the local people and are poisoned.

One problem faced by Pallas's cat kittens in captivity is their susceptibility to toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by a parasite that also infects domestic cats and humans. Toxoplasmosis is sometimes fatal for the kittens.

A Pallas's cat at a zoo in Rotterdam

A Pallas's cat at a zoo in Rotterdam

The Pallas's cat is named after the German scientist Peter Simon Pallas, who lived from 1741 to 1811. He studied, described, and categorized large numbers of plants and animals, many of them unknown to science before his research. The animal named in his honour is classified in the family Felidae, like the house or domestic cat, but it belongs to a different genus from these animals.

External Features

An adult Pallas's cat is generally between eighteen and twenty-six inches long, not including the tail. The tail is around eight to twelve inches long. The animal is about twelve to fourteen inches high and weighs between five-and-a-half and ten pounds.

The cat has a notably flattened face compared to other felines. The green or yellow-green eyes stand out because of the black rim around them and the white fur underneath the eyes. In combination with the flat and widely-separated ears, the low forehead, and the outspread fur on the sides of the head, this gives the face a unique appearance. The animal has a stocky build and a thick coat, making it look as though it's overweight.

Features of the Coat

The Pallas's cat has the longest and densest fur of any feline. The thick fur is important for the animal's survival in its often cold habitat. The coat is grey in winter and develops a yellow or red tinge in summer. The hairs are often tipped with white, giving the animal a frosted appearance. The hair is much longer on the undersurface of the body than on the upper surface. In addition, the coat is longer and thicker in winter than in summer.

The animal has a variety of black markings. These include black stripes on its cheeks, black spots on its forehead, black rings on its thick tail, and sometimes faint black marks on other areas of its body. The chin and throat are white, however.

The color of the coat helps the cat to blend in with its environment. Its small, low ears help to make it less visible to its prey. These features are useful, since the cat often stalks its prey rather than running to catch it. Pallas's cats have relatively short legs in proportion to their bodies.

Tibet is an autonomous region in the southwestern part of China. Pallas's cats are found on a huge, elevated plateau in the area known as the Tibetan Plateau.

Range of the Pallas's Cat

Pallas's cats have a wide range in Central Asia and are also found in some South Asian countries. They aren't abundant anywhere, however. The countries where they've been found are shown in the map of Central Asia above and the map of South Asia below. According to the IUCN, the cats live in:

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  • Mongolia
  • China, including the Tibetan Plateau
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Nepal
  • Bhutan
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Azerbaijan
  • Russia

The animals may also live in the other areas shown in the first map and not included in the list above, but this is uncertain.

Habitat of the Animals

Pallas's cats generally live at higher elevations and are often found in cold and dry grasslands. They are also found in scrubland and desert. They tolerate snow but avoid areas with a deep deposit or areas that contain a large, continuous expanse of snow. The animals frequently inhabit areas that have rocky outcrops for protection. Rodents also live in the animals' rocky habitat, which makes it easy for the cats to ambush their prey. Pallas's cats are good climbers and move over the rocks with ease.

Daily Life

The wild cats may be active at any time of the day or night, but they are primarily nocturnal or crepuscular (active at dawn and dusk). They spend their days protected in a rock crevice, in a cave, or in a burrow dug by another animal, such as a marmot. In the late afternoon, early evening, or early morning, the animals begin to hunt.

The cats stalk and ambush their prey, pouncing on the unfortunate animal at the last moment or trapping an animal as it emerges from its burrow. The cats aren't great runners. The largest component of their diet is made up of rodents, especially pikas and voles. Other small mammals may also be eaten, as well as birds, reptiles, and insects.

Pallas's cats are solitary, reclusive, and territorial animals. Both the male and the female mark their territories with secretions from their scent glands. When they are tense or upset, the cats produce a mumbling or chittering sound as they vibrate their upper lips in a threat display. The kittens in the video shown later in this article have already started to develop this technique. Pallas's cats can be aggressive. Even in captivity, they are not cuddly creatures. They have been called "the original Grumpy Cat.”

Grumpy Cat was a famous domestic cat from the United States. Her real name was Tardar Sauce. She was known for her permanently grumpy expression. Sadly, she died in 2019 from complications of a urinary tract infection.

Reproduction and Lifespan

When the female Pallas's cat is in her fertile phase, the male follows her around until mating occurs. This stage doesn't last for long. The female is no longer receptive to the male after forty-two hours.

The female gives birth to her kittens in a den. The kittens are born in April and May (at least in the areas that have been studied) after a gestation period of about 65 to 75 days. The litter generally consists of three to four kittens but may range in size from one to six kittens.

The youngsters leave home when they are about six months old and are ready to breed at ten to eleven months of age. In captivity, the Pallas's cat has lived for eleven years. It likely lives for a shorter time in the wild.

Unlike the case in many other small members of the cat family, the pupils of a Pallus's cat constrict into a circle instead of a slit as light intensity increases.

Facts About Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is caused by a one-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. This organism has a complex life cycle that involves multiple hosts. It infects birds and mammals, including rodents, cats, and humans. Both domestic and wild cats can be infected.

The parasite is widespread in the human population but may not cause any symptoms. If symptoms do result from the infection, they are usually mild and short-lived and resemble the flu. A person with a healthy immune system will probably never develop a major problem from the infection, but if the immune system isn't working properly the parasite can cause serious effects.

Medications are available to treat toxoplasmosis. It's important that pregnant women who are infected by Toxoplasma gondii receive treatment because the parasite can be passed to the unborn baby and injure it.

Humans are most often infected by eating undercooked and contaminated meat or by drinking contaminated water, though it's also possible to become infected after handling infected feces from a cat. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) says that a pregnant woman doesn't need to give up her cat because of the fear of toxoplasmosis. They do list some precautions to take, however. The relevant link is provided in the "References" section below.

A Pallus's cat or manul in a tree at the Edinburgh zoo

A Pallus's cat or manul in a tree at the Edinburgh zoo

Toxoplasmosis in Domestic and Pallas's Cats

As in humans, a toxoplasmosis infection in domestic cats may not cause any symptoms or ill effects. Indoor cats are much less likely to develop toxoplasmosis than outdoor ones, since the infection is transmitted through infected prey animals, raw meat, and untreated water.

It's thought that Pallas's cats are so susceptible to the toxoplasmosis parasite because they've never encountered it in their cold, relatively germ-free native environment and their bodies haven't developed any immunity to the parasite. The captive adults often survive toxoplasmosis but may become carriers of the parasite. The kittens have immature immune systems and may not survive if they become infected.

Other Potential Threats to the Population

Loss of Habitat

The IUCN says that habitat degradation and fragmentation are the chief threats for wild Pallas's cats at the moment. Use of land for livestock grazing is the main cause of habitat loss. Another problem arising from this situation is that the dogs used to herd the livestock are sometimes predators of the cats. (Large eagles are also potential predators of the animals.) In some areas, construction, mining, or quarrying is destroying the cat's habitat.


Killing Pallas's cats for their pelts is prohibited in many parts of their range, but the protection laws are not always enforced and illegal hunting still occurs. The cats are found in some nature reserves. These may not provide effective protection for the animals, however. The cats are sometimes killed for food or to obtain body parts for use in traditional medicine.

Loss of Prey

Another problem is that the rodents that form the major component of the cat's diet are frequently poisoned by humans. People believe that the rodents carry disease, destroy crops, and/or damage the habitat.


Toxoplasmosis may be a major threat to Pallas's cat kittens in captivity. The Pallas's cat has reproduced in zoos. Not all of the infants have survived, however, and in the recent past there has been a high kitten mortality rate. The survival rate appears to be increasing as zoos learn how to lower the risk of infection in their cats. Nevertheless, the disease is still a concern.

Conservation of the Species

Education of the public and enforcement of wildlife protection laws are important strategies to help the Pallas's cat’s population. The animal does have the advantage of preferring to live in remote areas, but unfortunately humans are gradually encroaching on these areas.

Captive-bred animals can't be released into the wild unless they are free of toxoplasmosis, so dealing effectively with this disease is another very important strategy for Pallas's cat conservation.

Although Pallas's cats are quite common in captivity, there is much that is unknown about their lives in the wild. Camera trapping (filming wild animals with an unattended camera) has begun. The action of the camera is triggered by an environmental factor, such as movement in front of the device. Hopefully, this and other techniques will enable us to learn more about the wild cats and also help us to protect them from potential dangers.


  • The Pallas's cat entry from the International Society for Endangered Cats Canada
  • Pallas's cat facts from Big Cat Rescue
  • The Otobolobus manul entry from the IUCN Red List
  • Toxoplasmosis information from the CDC (This website has a list of "Toxoplasmosis and Pregnancy FAQs" in the "About Toxoplasmosis" section.)

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2012 Linda Crampton


Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 18, 2012:

Thank you, alocsin. Pallas cats do look exotic! They are interesting animals.

Aurelio Locsin from Orange County, CA on March 18, 2012:

What an exotic-looking animal. Sorry to hear that they are near threatened. Let's hope people recognize that they are more valuable alive than dead. Voting this Up and Interesting.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 07, 2012:

Thanks for the visit, ChristyWrites. I agree with you - Pallas cats are cute, especially the kittens. The second video in particular made me smile, although I don't think that the kittens were very happy!

Christy Birmingham from British Columbia, Canada on March 07, 2012:

Awe these cats are so cute, the YouTube video has me smiling too! I had never heard of the cats so thanks for the information.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 05, 2012:

Thank you so much for the vote and all the sharing, Chatkath! I appreciate the support very much. It is important to protect fur-bearers as much as possible.

Kathy from California on March 05, 2012:

Alicia- these are such beautiful cats, I am embarrassed to say that as much as I love cats, (and all animals) I have never heard of the Pallas Cat! So glad that you have shared with us.

It is hard to believe that some people still opt to wear the furs of these gorgeous creatures knowing that doing so will eventually banish their existence completely. I am hoping that getting the word out will help to educate society about the problem. Wearing innocent animal pelts is not fashionable! Will Tweet, Like & Pin. Rated up!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 05, 2012:

I know what you mean about the expression of the Pallas cat, CMHypno! I agree, we certainly should be using artificial fibres instead of the fur from rare animals. Thanks for commenting.

CMHypno from Other Side of the Sun on March 05, 2012:

Interesting looking cat Alicia, even though they look quite cross! It's a shame that so many cat species are under pressure in the wild, and in a world of man-made fibres it's time that people stopped using rare wild species fur for coats.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 05, 2012:

Hi, Prasetio. Thank you for the comment and the vote. I love to write about animals. I'm fascinated by the animal kingdom!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 05, 2012:

Hi, Eddy. Yes, many types of wild cats exist. They're an interesting group of animals to study. Thanks for the vote!

prasetio30 from malang-indonesia on March 05, 2012:

I had never know about this cat before. It was beautiful cat as well. Thanks for always share about animal kingdom. You are the king here. Good job, Alicia. My vote always for you. Cheers.....


Eiddwen from Wales on March 05, 2012:

What a great hub;I never knew there were so many different breeds of cats. Another to vote up up and away plus bookmark.

Take care and enjoy your day.


Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 04, 2012:

Thank you very much for the comment and the vote, TENKAY. I appreciate your visit. I hope that the Pallas cat survives, too.

TENKAY from Philippines on March 04, 2012:

This is the first time I've heard about this type of cat. Definitely beautiful cat in a wild way... I hope they will survive despite the encroached habitat problem.

Thank you for sharing information on Pallas cat.

Definitely voted up and informative.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 04, 2012:

Hi, drbj. I agree - the Pallas cat is a beautiful creature and we do need to ensure that it survives. Thank you for the visit and comment.

drbj and sherry from south Florida on March 04, 2012:

Thanks, Alicia, for this fascinating introduction to the little known Pallas cat. They are beautiful creatures that we need to protect so they will survive.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 04, 2012:

Hi, Tom. Thanks for the comment and for voting! There are a number of wild cats that aren't very well known by the public. I think they're all very interesting! It's fascinating to compare their behavior and characteristics with my three cats, too.

Thomas Silvia from Massachusetts on March 04, 2012:

Hi Alicia, A great informational and interesting hub about these very beautiful Pallas cats. I have never heard of Pallas cats before but enjoyed learning about them reading your hub, thanks!

Vote up and more !!!

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 04, 2012:

Thank you, JKenny. I appreciate the comment and the vote. There is hope for the Pallas cat, but the protection laws that exist have to be enforced and habitat has to be maintained for them.

James Kenny from Birmingham, England on March 04, 2012:

Wonderful hub Alicia, about another fascinating wild cat. Its disheartening to hear that they are being decimated across their range. I just hope they can hang on. Also loved the info. on Toxoplasmosis, I'd never heard of it before. Definitely voted up.

Linda Crampton (author) from British Columbia, Canada on March 03, 2012:

Thank you very much for visiting the hub and for the comment and the vote, Debbie! Yes, Pallas cats are beautiful. They're interesting animals too. They're very different from domestic cats, even though they're about the same size.

Deborah Brooks Langford from Brownsville,TX on March 03, 2012:

Oh My these cats are so beautiful.. I would love to have one.. I love your hub

voted way up


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