The Critically Endangered Abutilon Menziesii (Ko‘oloa‘ula) Plant: Endemic to Hawaii and Declining

Updated on May 31, 2018
Casey White profile image

Dorothy is a Master Gardener, former newspaper reporter, and the author of several books. Michael is a landscape/nature photographer in NM.

Ko'oloa'ula Flowers of Hawaii

The beautiful Abutilon flower of the ko'oloa'ula shrub in Hawaii, endangered with declining numbers. Beautiful up close, the flowers can sometimes be hidden by the much larger leaves and not visible at a distance.
The beautiful Abutilon flower of the ko'oloa'ula shrub in Hawaii, endangered with declining numbers. Beautiful up close, the flowers can sometimes be hidden by the much larger leaves and not visible at a distance.

A Critically Endangered Beauty

It's hard to believe that a plant that produces such a gorgeous hibiscus-like flower could be critically endangered, but that is the case of the Abutilon menziesii plant (Ko‘oloa‘ula), endemic in Hawaii with declining numbers. Currently, there are only about 500 of these plants scattered across the islands of Hawaii.

The flowers bloom sporadically all through the year and in a range of colors, such as pink and white, solid pink, a pale red, wine, maroon, salmon and pale yellow. The staminal column is a yellowish color. As long as the seed pods and the flowers are picked, the flowering will continue. Flowering may slow down or even stop during the hottest parts of the year although generally, flowers are seen throughout most of the year.

The leaves, which range from an inch in width to about five inches, vary in their shapes. They have a velvety feel to them. Sometimes the large leaves make it hard to spot the gorgeous flowers that are also growing on this shrub.

Hawaii's residents use these shrubs in their landscapes in containers and as specimen plants. They are also a great accent plant and can be used in both screens and hedges.

Ko‘oloa‘ula flower variations and ripe fruits. Abutilon is an irresistible plant to hummingbirds, bees, and butterflies.  The flowers are often used in leis in Hawaii.
Ko‘oloa‘ula flower variations and ripe fruits. Abutilon is an irresistible plant to hummingbirds, bees, and butterflies. The flowers are often used in leis in Hawaii. | Source

How to Gather Seeds

Only gather mature fruits when they are completely dry (they will be a light brown color, as pictured below). Each of the fruits you collect will likely hold from one to three seeds in each chamber which can simply be shaken out (you might have to use some tweezers). Discard any seeds that have obvious holes, as they have probably been damaged by seed borers or some type of fungus. If the seeds collapse when you squeeze them with two fingers, they are not viable.

Hot water scarification is recommended for these perennial seeds and it is an easy process. Place your seeds in a pot of hot water that is almost boiling, then allow the seeds to soak in the water until it cools to room temperature. Remove the seeds and sow them immediately as scarified seeds do not store well. Viable seeds will usually sink, so if you have seeds that are floating you need to discard them.

Abutilon Menziesii Shrub and Seed Pods

Abutilon menziesii, Lualualei Valley, Oahu, Hawaii
Abutilon menziesii, Lualualei Valley, Oahu, Hawaii
Abutilon menziesii seed pods
Abutilon menziesii seed pods

Learn to Care for Your Plant

If you are one of the Hawaiian residents fortunate enough to have one of these critically-endangered plants growing on your land or around your home, you should know how to properly care for it. You will need to use a balanced, slow-release fertilizer with secondary and trace elements about twice a year. While an occasional foliar feeding is beneficial, monitor the frequency and amounts of applications. If you overfertilize the plant, you can cause large, limp foliage and your plant will produce fewer flowers.

Note: Secondary elements include calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Trace elements include boron, iron, copper, chlorine, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc.

For a healthy shrub and a high flower count, the Abutilon menziesii (Ko‘oloa‘ula) plant should be planted in full sun (partial sun at the very least). Plants need to be spaced about four to six feet apart if you are trying to showcase individual shrubs. If you are planting them for use as a hedge, spacing should be tighter (usually from two to five feet apart).


You should water the ground beneath the shrub to avoid an excessive amount of water on the foliage and branches which may lead to various fungal problems. Also, it is important to allow the soil to dry between waterings. Once your plant is established you will have little reason to provide it with additional water except in periods of extreme drought.


You can prune the shrub to any height you wish as it is a matter of taste, but avoid cutting the branches too far back to the major stem because they may not grow new branches. Make sure you sterilize your tools before you start using them to prevent the spread of disease.

Remove any plant parts that are damaged, as well as other damaged or dead shoots, and remove the branches just above a stem junction. You should never prune this plant by removing more than a third of a stem, in order to leave the plant enough resources to continue flowering and remain a healthy plant. You can remove bare or aging stems by cutting them at the base of the plant if it appears to be too dense.

Pests/Diseases That Ruin Plants and Flowers

Some of the pests are capable of destroying these critically endangered plants are Chinese rose beetles, aphids, and mealybugs. The beetles will usually leave unsightly holes in the leaves of the plant, but the aphids and mealybugs can be a problem around flower buds.

Overwatering, along with periods of continuous, heavy rainfall can cause black sooty mold to form on the shrub.

© 2018 Mike and Dorothy McKenney


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)