Cristina is a Florida native and Realtor by trade. She enjoys writing about travel, real estate, and several other interesting topics.
As a Floridian, and long-time resident of Miami, hurricanes are part of life. We don’t get hit very often, but I’ve lived through my share of hurricanes and tropical storms. The first actual hurricane (not tropical storm) I witnessed was Hurricane Andrew, and that was an experience that forever changed me. Anyone who has lived through a hurricane will attest to this: the hurricane sweeping over the land in all of its ferocity is not the worst part. The worst part is the aftermath, the destruction of homes, businesses, utilities, schools, cars, families, and lives. After hurricane Andrew, we lived without power for five weeks during the hottest month of the year, and without a phone for two and a half months. Still, I know we were lucky. We had a roof over our heads. As bad as Andrew was, it was not the worst or most destructive hurricane in history. Along with Andrew, there is a long list of hurricanes that caused tremendous death and property damage. Several are just awe-inspiring in their sheer brute strength.
Note: This article was first published in 2011 and is updated annually before the start of hurricane season.
I. The Costliest Hurricanes
- Hurricane Katrina
- Hurricane Harvey
- Hurricane Maria
II. The Deadliest Hurricanes
- The Great Hurricane of 1780 (Hurricane San Calixto II)
- Hurricane Mitch
- Galveston Hurricane of 1900
III. The Most Intense Hurricanes
- Hurricane Wilma
- Hurricane Gilbert
- The Labor Hurricane of 1935
Anyone who was alive and old enough to comprehend the tragedy that unfolded in New Orleans in 2005 will never forget Hurricane Katrina. To date, in terms of property damage, it is the costliest hurricane that has ever struck the U.S. or anywhere in the western hemisphere. Estimates of damage from Katrina’s three landfalls in the U.S. top $125 billion, making it the costliest hurricane in US history. It is also the deadliest US hurricane since the 1928 Lake Okeechobee hurricane and the third deadliest in US history with an estimated 1,833 deaths in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida.
Katrina began its life just southwest of the Bahamas, forming from the remnants of Tropical Depression Ten, an upper-level trough and a tropical wave. It first made landfall on August 25 near Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, a Category 1 storm that quickly moved across south Florida and moved into the Gulf of Mexico. Three days later, on August 28, Katrina strengthened to a Category 5 storm with winds measuring 175 mph and the barometric pressure lowering to 902 millibars. It had weakened to a Category 3 storm with maximum sustained winds of 125 mph when it made landfall for the second time on August 29 near Burras, Louisiana. Katrina continued north and made its third landfall near the Louisiana/Mississippi border.
The majority of the damage caused by Katrina came from flooding and the storm surge. In Mississippi the storm surge exceeded the normal tide level by 25 to 28 feet and in Louisiana by 10 to 20 feet. The surge also overwhelmed the levees that protect New Orleans from flooding, causing them to burst and flood most of the city. Portions of New Orleans are still closed and boarded, the residents relocated after the destruction of their lives, livelihoods and homes.
Harvey formed as a strong tropical wave to the east of the Lesser Antilles. It quickly developed into a tropical storm and began causing damage across the Caribbean before downgrading to a tropical wave. Once Harvey entered the Gulf of Mexico, it targeted the Texas coast where it stalled and dumped up to 60 inches of rain in a week. Harvey was the first major hurricane to hit the United States since Wilma, ending a 12-year drought. Estimates for damage equal Hurricane Katrina at $125 billion.
Hurricane Harvey was the 8th named storm of the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season and the first major hurricane. It gained intensity very quickly in the Bay of Campeche on Mexico's west coast, becoming a category 1 storm on August 24th and a category 4 on August 25. It made landfall near Rockport, Texas at peak intensity and stalled inland over Houston for 2 days, held there by a subtropical high pressure. Harvey eventually moved back out to the Gulf of Mexico where it intensified again and made a third and final landfall in Louisiana.
In September 2017, all eyes followed Hurricane Maria's destructive path through the Caribbean as she annihilated Dominica, St. Croix, and Puerto Rico. She would prove to be the most intense hurricane on record in that region and the deadliest since Hurricane Mitch in 1998. Maria was the third consecutive major hurricane to hit the Caribbean in two weeks, preceded by Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Jose. She caused catastrophic damage to housing, infrastructure, and vegetation on Dominica, which also suffered from an island-wide power outage. The islands of St. Croix, Martinique, and Guadaloupe experienced extensive flooding, roof damage, and uprooted vegetation. Puerto Rico, however, suffered the worst damage when Hurricane Maria screamed over the island has a Category 4 hurricane. The catastrophic damage to the US territory included widespread flooding, the worst electrical blackout in US history, and nearly 3,000 deaths. In total, Hurricane Maria caused more than $91 billion in damage.
Hurricane Maria was the 13th named storm, 8th consecutive hurricane, 4th major storm, and 2nd Category 5 hurricane of the ultra active 2017 hurricane season. It arrived to these islands on the heels of two Hurricane Irma just two weeks earlier which took a more northerly route yet still caused catastrophic damage to the Leeward Islands. Hurricane Maria ultimately caused major damage on at least six Caribbean islands as well as mainland United States. Puerto Rico suffered a catastrophic humanitarian crisis as the hurricane caused complete failure of the island's power grid, leaving more than 95% of the island without power, 95% without cell service to call for help, and more than half of the population without clean water. It took nearly a week for humanitarian and rescue efforts to reach the island. Six months later, more than 200,000 residents still had no power on the island. Approximately 14% of the population ultimately made an exodus to the United States mainland.
The Great Hurricane (Hurricane San Calixto II)
The deadliest hurricane on record exceeds in one fell swoop the death toll for any single decade of Atlantic storms. Developing in October of 1780, meteorologists believe winds could have exceeded 200 mph. The Great Hurricane ripped across the Lesser Antilles, Barbados, Martinique, St. Lucia, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic with thousands of deaths reported on each island. Besides heavy casualties on land, the hurricane decimated the British and French war fleets.
Though the exact track of the hurricane is unknown, there are eye-witness accounts from survivors of the hurricane. On Barbados, the wind was reportedly so strong it stripped the bark from the trees. All the homes on that island were destroyed, and heavy cannons were moved 100 feet. It is from this account that the wind estimates are based. No modern-day cyclone has produced this effect of stripping bark from trees. On the island of St. Vincent, 584 of the 600 homes were destroyed. On St. Lucia, a ship from the British fleet destroyed the city hospital when it was lifted on top of the hospital. All but two houses were destroyed on the island. On Grenada, 19 Dutch ships were wrecked, and at Martinique, 40 French ships were destroyed. There was also a reported 25 foot storm surge on Martinique. In all, The Great Hurricane caused an estimated 22,000 to 27,000 deaths and was part of an exceptionally deadly hurricane season.
The second costliest hurricane, when measuring human lives, was Hurricane Mitch in 1998. Mitch developed in the southwestern Caribbean Sea near Central America. It intensified quickly into a tropical storm within 24 hours and slowly meandered north in the Caribbean gathering strength until it was a monstrous Category 5 with a minimum pressure of 905 millibars on October 26. The storm passed over Swan Island and headed for the coastal islands of Honduras where it made landfall on October 29 as a Category 1 storm. Mitch weakened and meandered north over Central America, finally emerging into the Gulf of Mexico as a tropical storm on November 5. Mitch continued across the Gulf, making landfall and crossing Florida on November 5.
Hurricane Mitch was devastating for Central America. The damage it caused was equivalent to what Katrina did to New Orleans. The greatest toll came from Mitch’s slow progress northward over Central America, during which time it dumped huge quantities of rain, as much as 36 inches in parts of Honduras, creating mudslides and flooding. There were an estimated 11,000 deaths with another 9,000 missing, three million homeless as well as the heavily damaged infrastructure, croplands and buildings in several countries.
Galveston Hurricane of 1900
Another deadly hurricane was the Galveston Hurricane of 1900. As instruments and tracking systems were not available in 1900, very little is known about how the hurricane originally developed. It is known that the system developed into a tropical storm on August 27 and passed over Cuba before exiting into the Gulf of Mexico in a general west-northwest track. By the time the hurricane hit the Texas coast, it was a Category 4 hurricane with a storm surge of eight to fifteen feet. This tidal flooding inundated all of the Galveston Island and was responsibility for most of the estimated 8,000 deaths with some estimates as high as 12,000.
Not only did Hurricane Wilma cause almost $17 billion in property damage making it one of the costliest hurricanes ever, it shattered hurricane strength records. Wilma was an oddity in a year of bizarre tropical weather. The year 2005 gave us more hurricanes than any other year, as well as the costliest hurricane in Katrina, the strongest hurricane in Wilma, and another of the costliest hurricanes in Rita.
Hurricane Wilma developed in mid-October in the Caribbean Sea south of Jamaica. On October 18 Wilma became a hurricane, intensifying explosively to a Category 5 with estimated wind speeds of 185 mph. Her eye was 2-4 miles wide and the barometric pressure was an amazing 882 millibars, measured by a hurricane hunter aircraft on October 19. Wilma struck Cozumel and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico as a Category 4, and Florida as a Category 3, thankfully sparing land and people her Category 5 wrath.
Hurricane Gilbert set lots of records on its rapid-intensification path across the Caribbean to Central America. It was the first Category 5 storm in the Atlantic basin to strike land since Camille in 1969. It was the first hurricane to directly strike Jamaica since 1951. It was the first hurricane whose barometric pressure plummeted as far and as quickly as Gilbert’s did–70 millibars in 24 hours during the most intense strengthening. Wilma topped that dropping 88 millibars of pressure in just 12 hours.
Hurricane Gilbert formed in the Eastern Caribbean and after a brief stint as a tropical storm, quickly intensified to a major hurricane. It devastated Jamaica on September 12, 1988 with 150 mph winds and a nine foot surge. After weakening, Gilbert moved out over open water and intensified again, this time to a Category 5. It pummeled Grand Cayman with 155 mph winds. At its peak, it had winds of 185 mph and the lowest recorded pressure to date of 888 millibars.
The Labor Hurricane of 1935
One of the first known Category 5 hurricanes to hit the U.S., the Labor Day hurricane followed the path of the other strongest hurricanes in intensifying very quickly. The lowest pressure was 892 millibars, making it the strongest hurricane to ever hit the U.S. After making its first furious landfall in the Keys, it followed Florida’s west coast before coming ashore again, this time as a Category 2, near Cedar Key on Florida’s northwest coast.
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What Causes Strongest Hurricanes
Intensity and strength often go hand in hand. However, the most intense hurricanes are not necessarily the strongest. While intensity is measured by barometric pressure, strength is measured by wind speed. The strongest hurricanes ever recorded were Hurricane Allen in 1980 with sustained wind speeds of 190 mph followed by a four-way tie for second strongest with 185 mph winds. Those four storms were the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, Hurricane Gilbert in 1988, Hurricane Wilma in 2005, and Hurricane Irma in 2017.
© 2010 Cristina Vanthul
Gerry Glenn Jones from Somerville, Tennessee on June 23, 2018:
Well written - I am always amazed at the power that is in hurricanes.
shadowedsoul on June 09, 2018:
P.S.: HARVEY now is the United States' most expensive natural disaster.
shadowedsoul on June 09, 2018:
What about PATRICIA!!!
Rebecca Graf from Wisconsin on September 14, 2017:
You brought back many memories. Mother Nature has quite a temper.
kaleigh gilbert on November 26, 2012:
i think this is bad i hope thoes people are ok in new york there is a hurricane sandy so in school we wright about hurricane sandy i see the pichurs i was sacerd for them if you live in new york i am sorry if your house fill down sorry
Cristina Vanthul (author) from Florida on September 27, 2012:
There was a Hurricane Flossy in 1956, a category 1 so not close to being one of the worst hurricanes in history, but like all of them, I'm sure dangerous and impressive, especially for a child. Here's a link to more info on Flossy:
warren on September 26, 2012:
I can vagely remember a hurricane named Flossy whwn I was a kid,anyone else?
Cristina Vanthul (author) from Florida on September 24, 2012:
Thank you, Anna. Puerto Rico certainly gets its fair share of hurricanes and tropical storms. They are indeed beautiful and majestic, and a force to be very careful with.
Cristina Vanthul (author) from Florida on September 24, 2012:
Thank you, Eric. Hurricanes certainly are dangerous and even though some didn't make my list, doesn't mean they weren't equally as frightening or dangerous to those who lived through them. Thanks for reading and commenting.
AnnaCia on September 08, 2012:
What an excellent hub! Very well written. Hurricanes have always called my attention with their terrifying beauty. I am originally from Puerto Rico, and I am always so scared of these majestic monsters. Thanks.
Eric Dunbar from New Orleans on September 05, 2012:
Very informative Hub. As a Floridian, you can indentify with the danfers of experiencing a hurricane first hand. My wife and I spent five days in the flooded city of New Orleans during Hurricand Katrina. Hurricanes are serious and should never be taken lightly.
You forgot Hurricane Betsy... I lived through Betsy too.
mark on August 27, 2012:
You forgot hurricane Camille.
BusterMcDermott on June 20, 2012:
Interesting list of Biggest, Deadliest, Most Destructive Hurricane's EVER! We must be prepared always... http://www.ranker.com/list/10-biggest-deadliest-mo...
Quilligrapher from New York on January 03, 2011:
Thank you, cvanthul. This is an excellent hub and a very interesting read. Personally, I found the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 to be particularly ugly. Remembered as the first of only three category 5 hurricanes to reach the coast of the United States in the 20th century, it resulted in an enormous loss of life and property in the Florida Keys. The fate of the gallant crew of the rescue train, as well as the arduous journey endured by the tourists stranded in the lower Keys after the storm, are quite remarkable. These events moved me to chronicle their ordeal and the demise of an engineering achievement that was compared with the Panama Canal in my hub “The Last Train to Key West”. Q.
Cristina Vanthul (author) from Florida on November 30, 2010:
Thank you, Doc. I had the pleasure(?)/misfortune(?) of being in Homestead, FL when Hurricane Andrew passed through as a Cat 5. It's an experience I will never forget - awesome is definitely a fitting term!
Doc Snow from Camden, South Carolina on November 30, 2010:
A nice summary of a topic that really does merit the term "awesome." Thanks!
Cristina Vanthul (author) from Florida on June 19, 2010:
Thanks, Bilaras. I don't think the Earth is getting more violent. More people live in the coastal areas that are prone to the worst hurricane damage. And there wasn't much info on hurricanes prior to the 1850s so there simply isn't a whole lot of historical data to say whether there were worse hurricanes or not.
Thanks for taking the time to leave a comment.
Edward Happer MSc on June 19, 2010:
Thanks for sharing this info very well written hub. Has anyone else noticed that in these recent decades our earth is getting more and more violent. Or may be there are more people living in danger zones now then ever.
Again thanks for sharing this informative hub.