Orioles: Shy Birds That Are More Often Heard Than Seen

Updated on January 14, 2019
Casey White profile image

Dorothy is a Master Gardener, former newspaper reporter, and the author of several books. Michael is a landscape/nature photographer in NM.

The Orioles of North America

If you are an avid birdwatcher, or you simply love birds, colorful, shy orioles might just be some of your favorites. They are flashy and they are bright but usually, you will hear them before you see them, as they are very vocal birds that love to chatter. A description of the sounds of the different species is included in this article.

Your chances of hearing them are great if you live anywhere in North America, where there are at least nine species of orioles - the Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula) and the orchard oriole (Icterus spurius) in the eastern regions; and the Bullock's oriole (Icterus bullockii) and Scott's oriole (Icterus parisorum) in the western regions. The spot-breasted oriole (Icterus pectoralis) is found only in the suburbs of southern Florida. In the southern states and Mexico, you can find the Audubon's oriole (Icterus graduacauda), the hooded oriole (Icterus cucullatus), the streak-backed oriole (Icterus pustulatus), and the Altamira oriole (Icterus gularis).

If you would like to know where to locate any of the above-mentioned birds, this article should help you out, as we have included range maps for each of the nine species known to be in North America.

Orioles in the Eastern Region

Click thumbnail to view full-size
The male and female Baltimore orioles (Icterus galbula) breed in North America east of the Rockies.   The male, shown here, is black, white, and a bright golden orange.  Female and immature male Baltimore orioles are a bit more subtle in their coloring.   They are yellow-orange on the breast, and gray on the head and back.  They have two bold white wing bars.  Map showing the range of the Baltimore Oriole birds in North America.An immature orchard oriole photographed in Galveston, Texas.A male orchard oriole is a russet color instead of the typical flame orange color of the Baltimore oriole.Map shows the range of the orchard oriole.
The male and female Baltimore orioles (Icterus galbula) breed in North America east of the Rockies.   The male, shown here, is black, white, and a bright golden orange.
The male and female Baltimore orioles (Icterus galbula) breed in North America east of the Rockies. The male, shown here, is black, white, and a bright golden orange. | Source
Female and immature male Baltimore orioles are a bit more subtle in their coloring.   They are yellow-orange on the breast, and gray on the head and back.  They have two bold white wing bars.
Female and immature male Baltimore orioles are a bit more subtle in their coloring. They are yellow-orange on the breast, and gray on the head and back. They have two bold white wing bars. | Source
Map showing the range of the Baltimore Oriole birds in North America.
Map showing the range of the Baltimore Oriole birds in North America.
An immature orchard oriole photographed in Galveston, Texas.
An immature orchard oriole photographed in Galveston, Texas. | Source
A male orchard oriole is a russet color instead of the typical flame orange color of the Baltimore oriole.
A male orchard oriole is a russet color instead of the typical flame orange color of the Baltimore oriole. | Source
Map shows the range of the orchard oriole.
Map shows the range of the orchard oriole.

The Baltimore Oriole

The flaming orange and black colors of the Baltimore oriole make it one of the most beautifully-colored songbirds of North America. This gorgeous bird received its name because of the similarity of its colors to the ones used in the coat of arms of Lord Baltimore in the 17th century.

Because the Baltimore oriole hybridizes extensively with the western Bullock's Oriole where their ranges overlap in the Great Plains, they once were considered the same species and called northern orioles. After genetic studies in the 1990s, they were once again recognized as two unique species.

Their Habitat

Baltimore orioles live in open woods, shade trees, elm trees or riverside groves but are often seen in trees in urbanized areas. They breed in deciduous or mixed woodland areas, preferring open woods or the edges of the woods to the dense interior. If you are trying to catch a glimpse of a Baltimore oriole, you need to cast your gaze high in the trees because they like to perch in the top of trees. Even when searching for insects, they will usually flit about in a tree's upper foliage.

Their Diet and Feeding Behavior

All Orioles, like many of us, have a sweet tooth. Some of the things that Baltimore orioles prefer are berries, fruit, nectar, peanut butter, and suet. They also like to dine on insects and will actively seek out ripe fruit, especially oranges that have been cut in half exposing the sweet fruit inside. These birds seem to prefer ripe, dark-colored fruit, seeking out the darkest mulberries and cherries, along with the darkest purple grapes. They are known to ignore ripe green grapes and yellow cherries which are considered treats to most other fruit-eating birds.

A Baltimore oriole will use its slender beak to feed in a method called gaping, where it thrusts its closed bill into soft fruits, opening its mouths wide (thus the name gaping) to cut a section from which they drink.

The Sounds of a Baltimore Oriole

The Baltimore oriole has a mix of slow, quickly repeated whistles - more whistled and slower than the orchard oriole, and lacking the sharp, high notes.

The Orchard Oriole

Orchard orioles are common birds, but often inconspicuous as they flit about in the tops of scattered trees. You are most likely to see them in the first few months of summer since many of them leave their breeding ground in late summer, which is a bit earlier than most other birds that migrate.

Their Preferred Diet

Orchard orioles will eat the nectar and pollen from flowers, particularly in the winter. They serve as pollinators for some tropical plants when its head becomes covered in pollen, which is then transferred from one flower to another. If the oriole pierces the base of the flower to retrieve the nectar, no such pollination takes place.

They mostly eat insects and other arthropods, but love the taste of fruit and nectar. Foliage provides them an endless supply of ants, bugs, caterpillars, grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, mayflies, and spiders. And, like the other species, its sweet tooth draws the orchard oriole to hummingbird feeders.

The Sounds of the Orchard Oriole

The orchard oriole likes to sing the high notes! Its songs are higher than other species and harsher and faster than the Baltimore oriole. Its sweet whistles may resemble the sounds made by some other familiar birds such as robins or grosbeaks but if you listen for harsh churrs and chatters interspersed with the high notes you should be able to distinguish this species from other birds.


Southern Florida's Spot-Breasted Oriole

This stunning bird, a spot-breasted oriole, is only found in parts of southern Florida.
This stunning bird, a spot-breasted oriole, is only found in parts of southern Florida. | Source

The Spot-Breasted Oriole

Apparently, in the 1940s, a caged spot-breasted oriole escaped from captivity in the Miami, Florida area. Theseorioles, native to southwestern Mexico and Central America, have historically been kept by some as pets in cages. The escaped bird found the suburbs of southern Florida, with endless varieties of exotic plants, to be suitable habitat, and began thriving there in areas between Miami and West Palm Beach. Unlike most North American orioles, both the male and female are bright and look alike, a common trait of tropical orioles.

Their Diet and Feeding Behavior

Spot-breasted orioles forage slowly and deliberately in the branches and foliage of trees searching for berries, nectar, and insects. They often forage among flowers, extracting the nectar and eating parts of the flower itself.

The Sounds of a Spot-Breasted Oriole

The male sings a slow series of clear, rich whistles but the female's song, although she sings often, is somewhat simpler and thinner than that of the male.

Orioles in the Western Region

Click thumbnail to view full-size
A Bullock's oriole in Rio Rancho, New Mexico.Map showing the range of the Bullock's oriole.A Scott's oriole photographed in Texas. Map showing the range of the Scott's oriole.
A Bullock's oriole in Rio Rancho, New Mexico.
A Bullock's oriole in Rio Rancho, New Mexico. | Source
Map showing the range of the Bullock's oriole.
Map showing the range of the Bullock's oriole.
A Scott's oriole photographed in Texas.
A Scott's oriole photographed in Texas. | Source
Map showing the range of the Scott's oriole.
Map showing the range of the Scott's oriole.

The Scott's Oriole

The Scott's oriole was named in honor of General Winfield Scott, the longest-serving military general in American history. A male Scott's oriole has a solid black head and back, with the black extending down onto the chest area forming a jagged pattern against the lemon-yellow of its underparts. The female has more greenish-yellow on the undersides that many other female orioles and is washed on the upperparts in gray, black and white.

Their Habitat

The Scott's orioles prefer to remain in areas where yuccas are commonly found - on the desert-facing slopes of mountains and foothills. They live mainly in parts of Mexico, but breed in some of the Southwestern states - mainly New Mexico, California, Arizona, and Texas, although some travel as far north as Idaho or Montana for breeding.

Preferences in Food

These orioles search trees and flowers for insects and nectar and often become regular visitors at backyard hummingbird feeders to quench their thirst for sugar water.

The Sounds of a Scott's Oriole

This species has a lower, richer, and more bubbly sound than other orioles with fewer repeated notes than the Baltimore oriole.

The Bullock's Oriole

Named after an amateur English naturalist, William, Bullock, the Bullock's oriole once preferred the stately American elm tree (Ulmus americana) as its nesting site. Since the tree's decline due to the devastating Dutch elm disease, these orioles have come to favor deciduous woodlands and shade trees.

Descriptive Features

The male Bullock's orioles have orange cheeks and eyebrows and large white wing patches. The female has whitish underparts, and is washed in gray and orange.

The Sounds of a Bullock's Oriole

This species of oriole makes a disjointed jumbling of whistles, chucks, and harsh notes.


An Oriole Nest Full of Hungry Babies

A female oriole will build a type of hanging basket nest for her eggs by weaving grass and plant fibers together.
A female oriole will build a type of hanging basket nest for her eggs by weaving grass and plant fibers together. | Source

Orioles of the Southern States and Mexico

Click thumbnail to view full-size
The Audubon's oriole (is one of the favored hosts of the nest-parasitic bronzed cowbird; more than half of all oriole nests in Texas have cowbird eggs in them.Map showing the limited range in the United States of the Audubon's oriole.A streak-backed oriole (Icterus pustulatus) photographed in Yuma, Arizona.Map showing the range of the streak-backed oriole.A hooded oriole Map showing the range of the hooded oriole.Not only is the Altamira oriole the largest oriole in the United States, its nest is the longest of any other bird found in North America.Map showing the year-round range of the Altamira oriole.
The Audubon's oriole (is one of the favored hosts of the nest-parasitic bronzed cowbird; more than half of all oriole nests in Texas have cowbird eggs in them.
The Audubon's oriole (is one of the favored hosts of the nest-parasitic bronzed cowbird; more than half of all oriole nests in Texas have cowbird eggs in them.
Map showing the limited range in the United States of the Audubon's oriole.
Map showing the limited range in the United States of the Audubon's oriole.
A streak-backed oriole (Icterus pustulatus) photographed in Yuma, Arizona.
A streak-backed oriole (Icterus pustulatus) photographed in Yuma, Arizona. | Source
Map showing the range of the streak-backed oriole.
Map showing the range of the streak-backed oriole.
A hooded oriole
A hooded oriole | Source
Map showing the range of the hooded oriole.
Map showing the range of the hooded oriole.
Not only is the Altamira oriole the largest oriole in the United States, its nest is the longest of any other bird found in North America.
Not only is the Altamira oriole the largest oriole in the United States, its nest is the longest of any other bird found in North America.
Map showing the year-round range of the Altamira oriole.
Map showing the year-round range of the Altamira oriole.

The Audubon's Oriole

This species of oriole is a medium size songbird with a black hood and a yellowish body. The wings of the bird are black and it has a straight, pointed bill and a long, black tail. The size of the Audubon's oriole falls between the size of a sparrow and a robin.

This species is predominantly a Mexican bird that reaches the United States only in a limited area of south Texas. The Audubon's oriole is a secretive bird that prefers to live in vegetation that is denser than other oriole species.

Sounds of the Audubon's Oriole

Both the male and the female have a slow series of warbles and whistles that resemble the sounds made by a child learning to whistle. When voicing a sound of alarm the birds sing out a nasal "yee" sound.

The Streak-Backed Oriole

The male of this species has a deep orange head and chest with contrasting black lores and chin up to the upper breast. The upperparts are orange with heavy black streaks on the mantle and tail. The tail consists of black feathers with white tips. The female bird is very similar to the male but has slightly less rich coloring. They eat insects and other arthropods; nectar, and various fruits.

Although a rare occurrence, they have been known to visit California and Arizona. They are commonly found along the western edge of Mexico.

Sounds of the Streak-Backed Oriole

Both sexes of this species have a melodic warbling series of whistles that occasionally will include some "churr" notes. The male bird sings more often than the female and their common calls include mainly chatters, along with a sharp chit.

The Hooded Oriole

Hooded orioles have longer and more delicate bodies than other orioles. Their tales are long and rounded and their necks are long and their bill curves downward, more so that most orioles. The male is mostly deep orange but the color can range from a brilliant yellow to a flame orange. The female's crown and nape are grey-like olive-yellow color, and her upperparts are olive.

This species lives in open woodlands with scattered trees, including cottonwoods, willows, sycamores, or palm trees.

The Sounds of the Hooded Oriole

The song of the hooded oriole covers a wide frequency range and includes a quick series of clicks and warbles along with some chattering. They also try to mimic other species' songs. Their calls include fast chatter and a whistled "wheet," along with a hard "chit."

The Altamira Oriole

The Altamira oriole is the largest oriole in the United States. It is common in northeastern Mexico but didn't appear in the United States until 1939. Now, it is a common year-round resident in the native woods of the tip of southern Texas. Because it forages in dense trees, it may go unseen, but you can't miss its harsh fussing sounds. You may even first notice its oversized nest, which consists of a pouch up to two feet long hanging off the end of a branch.

The diet of this species consists mainly of insects and berries.

The Sounds of the Altamira Oriole

Their song consists of a series of clear, slow musical whistles. Their calls, however, are harsh whistles, a rasping chatter and a nasal-sounding "ike."

© 2019 Mike and Dorothy McKenney

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    • Casey White profile imageAUTHOR

      Mike and Dorothy McKenney 

      7 months ago from United States

      Wow!

    • profile image

      Gabriela Banuelos 

      7 months ago

      I have some pictures of hooded oriole birds, I was surprised when I saw them sucking the aloe vera nectar, I had never seen them in person, they are beautiful!

    • Casey White profile imageAUTHOR

      Mike and Dorothy McKenney 

      10 months ago from United States

      Thank you so much, Maren!

    • Maren Morgan M-T profile image

      Maren Elizabeth Morgan 

      10 months ago from Pennsylvania

      Love the photo of the nest!

    • Casey White profile imageAUTHOR

      Mike and Dorothy McKenney 

      10 months ago from United States

      They are definitely a shy bunch.

    • Ellison Hartley profile image

      Ellison Hartley 

      10 months ago from Maryland, USA

      I live in Maryland, just a short drive from Baltimore, I have been here my whole life 34 years and I don't think I have ever seen or heard one!

    • Casey White profile imageAUTHOR

      Mike and Dorothy McKenney 

      10 months ago from United States

      Thanks Pamela. We had the Bullock's oriole in our yard this past summer and as you can see from the photo, he was not too happy about having his picture taken by my husband. Thanks for reading!

    • Pamela99 profile image

      Pamela Oglesby 

      10 months ago from Sunny Florida

      I haven't seen any orioles in my neighborhood in N. FL. I wish they were here as they are beautiful birds. I suppose they could live in some of the wooded area. I love the picture of the babies with their mouths open.

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