Early Pandemic Mistakes: 5 Misconceptions About COVID-19

Updated on May 19, 2020
ChristopherJRex profile image

Chris is an Anatomy & Physiology Instructor at Vance-Granville Community College and teaches Pathophysiology. He has an M.S. in Biology.

What SARS-CoV-2 looks like when viewed through a transmission electron microscope (TEM).  This virus is responsible for causing COVID-19.  Coronaviruses get their name from the “corona” or “crown” of spikes that line the edges of the viral particle.
What SARS-CoV-2 looks like when viewed through a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This virus is responsible for causing COVID-19. Coronaviruses get their name from the “corona” or “crown” of spikes that line the edges of the viral particle. | Source

The Virus SARS-CoV-2 Causes COVID-19

Before we get to the misconceptions about this infectious disease, let’s first properly introduce it: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is a condition caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and it was originally described as "novel coronavirus" (2019-nCoV). For convenience, I will use COVID-19 to refer to this global pandemic (declared as such by the World Health Organization, or WHO, on 3/11/2020) and will also use COVID-19 to refer to the underlying virus, SARS-CoV-2, for the sake of simplicity and to permit easier continuity. President Donald Trump also declared a national emergency on 3/13/2020 for the United States (U.S.) in order to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

The following misconceptions encompass the top 5 concerns that I, personally, have heard from others and have chosen to address directly within this article, as I feel that many other sources adequately address the majority of the other myths/misconceptions about COVID-19. Certain values below (for infections, deaths, mortality rates, and relevant data in tables) are updated as regularly as possible. Johns Hopkins creates some great maps for displaying and updating this data.

Warning

This article is not intended to be consumed by someone unfamiliar with COVID-19, so if you need to brush up on some additional background knowledge, I would strongly suggest perusing websites created by the WHO or CDC on this subject.

Misconceptions About COVID-19

1. The mortality rate for COVID-19 is lower than that of the common flu or any previous pandemics.

For the most part, no, it is not. In order to understand this, we must reflect upon the term “rate.” According to Merriam-Webster, “rate” is defined as being “a quantity, amount, or degree of something measured per unit of something else.” That means that by strictly analyzing the number of human deaths by COVID-19 (which appear to be >320,000 worldwide as of 11:30 pm EST May 18, 2020), we are not actually addressing a “rate.”

So, let’s go ahead and calculate mortality rates by dividing the number of deaths by the number of infections. Beginning with COVID-19 (as of 11:30 pm EST May 18, 2020), we find that there were 320,180 deaths for the 4,894,071 infections worldwide, generating a global mortality rate of ~6.5%. When we compare this mortality rate to the rate seen in the United States (as of 11:30 pm EST May 18, 2020), we find that there were 91,981 deaths for the 1,550,294 infections, resulting in a mortality rate of ~5.9%. For the last known (not estimated) values for the common flu in the United States, we find that in the 2016-2017 flu season, there were 38,000 deaths for the 29,000,000 infections, resulting in a mortality rate of ~0.1%.

Therefore, as of 11:30 pm EST May 18, 2020, COVID-19 has a mortality rate of ~6% (~1 in 16 people die), which is ~60 times higher than the mortality rate of the common flu at ~0.1% (~1 in 1,000 people die). When comparing current COVID-19 values to the Swine flu (H1N1) Pandemic (which lasted from April 2009 to April 2010), we find even more distance between the mortality rates, as Swine flu was only able to cause ~12,500 deaths amongst ~61,000,000 infections in the U.S. (resulting in a ~0.02% mortality rate). That means that COVID-19 appears to have a mortality rate that is ~150 times higher than that of Swine flu.

Reaching further back in time, we find ourselves reflecting upon the Spanish flu (H1N1) Pandemic (which lasted from March 1918 to February 1919) that killed anywhere between ~17,000,000 and ~100,000,000 people after infecting ~500,000,000 (approximately one-third of the global population at that time, resulting in a mortality rate as low as ~3.4% or as high as ~10%). Therefore, the mortality rate of the current COVID-19 pandemic more closely resembles conservative estimates of Spanish flu mortality rates and should be treated as a serious health concern. This particularly applies to those in vulnerable demographics, like the elderly and those with certain chronic illnesses (particularly respiratory). Although the average age of those infected with COVID-19 is ~56 years old, ~50% of them are between 46 and 67 years old.

COVID-19 Mortality Rates Compared with Other Diseases

Disease
Infections
Deaths
Mortality Rate (%)
COVID-19 (global)
4,894,071
320,180
6.54
COVID-19 (U.S.)
1,550,294
91,981
5.93
Common flu (U.S., 2016-2017)
29,000,000
38,000
0.13
Swine flu (U.S., 2009-2010)
61,000,000
12,500
0.02
Spanish flu (global, 1918-1919)
500,000,000
17,000,000
3.40
Infections, deaths, and mortality rates (% of infections that result in deaths) of various diseases as of 11:30 pm EST May 18, 2020. Source: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

2. Total deaths resulting from COVID-19 proceed at a slower pace than previous pandemics, so we should not worry about it.

Once again, when comparing COVID-19 side-by-side with some of our previously mentioned disease outbreaks, this claim just does not hold up. As of 11:30 pm EST May 18, 2020, COVID-19 has managed to kill >320,000 people worldwide and >91,000 people in the U.S. in the ~5 months it has been around. Swine flu only managed to cause ~6,000 deaths after spreading around the U.S. for ~7 months. Spanish flu took ~5 months to cause many thousands of deaths (rapidly increasing to millions) in a “second wave” of infection.

Origin of COVID-19

The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to have originated from an animal in the Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan, China. Like this virus, ~70% of new human pathogens are zoonotic (passed from animals to humans).

3. More people die from the common flu every day than COVID-19.

Although this is objectively true, it can only be applied to an exact moment in time. If COVID-19 infects as many people in the United States as the common flu did in the 2016-2017 season (~29,000,000 people), it could mean the deaths of ~638,000 people in 2020, not ~38,000 deaths (a ~16 fold increase in flu deaths). Choosing to have such a “lackluster” approach to a pandemic often leads to an increase in infections and deaths.

It is important to remember that treating a situation seriously, and with respect, from the beginning often helps maximize success in dealing with a potential crisis. It is when we grossly underestimate a crisis that real panic sets in and things spiral out of control. Therefore, preparing for the worst and then experiencing a party popper is preferable to downplaying the potential danger of a situation and then experiencing a machine gun. More is often lost with inaction than with being overly cautious.

That is why China’s first lockdown measures (starting locally in Wuhan on 1/23/2020 and expanding to other cities in the days that followed to help insulate ~60 million people) were so important. They took the situation seriously from the start and prepared to tackle an outbreak that went on to infect (over the following two months) an additional ~75,000 people in China, alone. Other countries (like Italy on 3/9/2020) have taken notice of the effectiveness of such lockdowns and quarantines on preventing widespread infection and are slowly enacting them. This suggests that countries should put preventative measures in place in time to save millions of lives.

COVID-19 Global Mortality Rates over Time by Weeks

Week
Infections
Deaths
Mortality Rate (%)
1 (12/31/19-1/4/20)
?
?
?
2 (1/5/20-1/11/20)
?
?
?
3 (1/12/20-1/18/20)
?
?
?
4 (1/19/20-1/25/20)
580
25
4.31
5 (1/26/20-2/1/20)
2,800
80
2.86
6 (2/2/20-2/8/20)
17,391
362
2.08
7 (2/9/20-2/15/20)
40,553
910
2.24
8 (2/16/20-2/22/20)
71,329
1,775
2.49
9 (2/23/20-2/29/20)
79,205
2,618
3.31
10 (3/1/20-3/7/20)
88,585
3,050
3.44
11 (3/8/20-3/14/20)
109,991
3,827
3.48
12 (3/15/20-3/21/20)
169,511
6,517
3.84
13 (3/22/20-3/28/20)
337,612
14,641
4.34
14 (3/29/20-4/4/20)
724,220
34,074
4.70
15 (4/5/20-4/11/20)
1,275,007
69,447
5.45
16 (4/12/20-4/18/20)
1,852,365
114,197
6.16
17 (4/19/20-4/25/20)
2,406,786
167788
6.97
18 (4/26/20-5/2/20)
2989175
210239
7.03
19 (5/3/20-5/9/20)
3559748
248144
6.97
20 (5/10/20-5/16/20)
4178097
283732
6.79
21 (5/17/20-5/23/20)
4799266
316520
6.60
Infections, deaths, and mortality rates organized by calendar weeks since the appearance of COVID-19 on 12/31/19. Values represent Sundays. Last updated 0:00 GMT+0 Sunday, May 17, 2020. Source: World O Meters.

4. Once you test negative for COVID-19, then you are in the clear.

Let’s not be hasty, here. Just because you aren’t COVID-19 positive now does not necessarily mean that you won’t become COVID-19 positive later. Not to mention, you may still aid in the passive transmission of a virus without becoming infected (by touching surfaces that are contaminated and transferring viral particles elsewhere). Additionally, what may not be a sufficient viral load to establish an infection in your body (as your healthy immune system may be able to adequately fend it off) may be enough to infect another person (whose immune system is weaker than your own). This is due to individual host variations in COVID-19’s infectivity (affecting its ability to spread from one person to the next). Also keep in mind that the incubation period for COVID-19 is 2-14 days, with the average infectiousness starting ~2.5 days before symptom onset (and peak levels occurring ~15 hours prior to symptom development).

People who are asymptomatic (not displaying symptoms) may also be capable of shedding the virus, leading to ambiguity about the source of infection. When analyzing 375 Chinese cities between January 10, 2020 and January 23, 2020, researchers found that ~86% of COVID-19 cases were "undocumented" (either being asymptomatic or having very mild symptoms) and were responsible for ~79% of future infections, whereas researchers in Italy found that ~60% of individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were asymptomatic. Additionally, the virus sheds for an average of ~20 days following infection, and as many as 37 days. About 5-10% of the people in Wuhan, China who contracted the virus (tested positive) and recovered (later tested negative) have tested positive again for COVID-19, potentially becoming asymptomatic, perpetual shedders of the virus. Therefore, the best approach is to treat every person like they are infected and to always exercise universal precautions. If you feel ill, then you may want to consider self-quarantine as an option to protect others until you can get tested for COVID-19.

Even though I do not wish to discourage getting tested, please be aware of the fact that the simple act of going to the doctor’s office to get tested may, as with any congregation of people, expose you to the virus (this is how people getting the flu vaccine may actually contract the flu the same day). So, it is important to maintain universal precautions even at the doctor’s office (for your sake and for the sake of others). Fortunately, if the risk involved with going to a doctor's office gives you pause, many places are developing drive-thru COVID-19 testing services (thus limiting close contact with others and mitigating new infections).

It is only through testing that we can get a clear picture of the spread of the virus, enact more successful containment/mitigation protocols, and more accurately calculate its mortality rate (as COVID-19 testing does not necessarily occur postmortem in unknown deaths, due to several factors, including efforts to prioritize testing the living to save lives due to the often limited inventory of test kits).

Mortality Rates in Various Countries Over Time by Weeks

Mortality rates (% of infections that result in deaths) of various countries organized by calendar weeks (Sundays) since the appearance of COVID-19 on 12/31/19, starting with week 3.  Last updated at 0:00 GMT+0 Sunday, May 17, 2020.
Mortality rates (% of infections that result in deaths) of various countries organized by calendar weeks (Sundays) since the appearance of COVID-19 on 12/31/19, starting with week 3. Last updated at 0:00 GMT+0 Sunday, May 17, 2020.

5. The solution for a pandemic like COVID-19 is to quarantine for 2 weeks, and then we will be past the peak of the pandemic.

Not necessarily. If we recall the timeframes of the previously mentioned global pandemics, the mild Swine flu lasted ~12 months and the devastating Spanish flu only endured ~11 months. Making this assertion in March 2020 (only ~3 months into a pandemic), could be preemptive, as the disease has the potential to remain for another ~9 months. Add to that the fact that COVID-19 can survive for up to 3 hours within liquid droplets suspended in the air (often resulting from a powerful aerosolizing event, like a cough or a sneeze) and up to 3 days on hard surfaces (like steel or plastic), and we can see how ending this pandemic quickly and effectively would be difficult. Also, if people can remain infectious for up to ~37 days, it means that two-week quarantines are not likely to be effective in containing this outbreak.

A few additional factors have to be considered when watching the numbers of new infections and deaths. To start with, new infections will likely increase at a rate faster than the numbers of new deaths, resulting in a “false” suppression of mortality rate. We must be cautious to not jump to conclusions when we witness this, but to instead take it with a grain of salt. As healthcare systems struggle to keep up with sufficient testing and care for those who may be, or are, infected, we will likely see a reverse trend where the numbers of new infections slow down and the numbers of new deaths climb (thus increasing the mortality rate).

This need to mitigate the possibility of overwhelming healthcare systems is called “flattening the curve.” This is where we attempt, through mitigation/isolation/quarantine measures, to maintain the number of people requiring medical attention to around the level that the available healthcare systems are able to support. If we are not able to flatten this curve of people needing medical care versus the capacity of healthcare systems to support, then we are likely to increase mortality rates, like we saw in Italy.

As of March 15, 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to have stabilized in China (with total cases remaining in the 80,000 range over the 2-week period from 3/1/2020-3/14/2020). We may be able to gauge a more accurate mortality figure from the 70,130 “closed” cases of COVID-19 in China. Although 66,931 of those closed cases involved folks who were able to recover, 3,199 died as a result of COVID-19 (generating a start-finish mortality rate of 4.6%).

With COVID-19 initially sharing some superficial qualities with Spanish flu (like a high mortality rate), we must seriously consider a “worst-case” scenario where COVID-19 mimics the same disease progression. Spanish flu first manifested itself in a relatively mild form, only killing low numbers of people over a couple of months in what we call the first “wave” of infection. Just when it seemed as though the threat was over (when the number of new infections and new deaths substantially dropped off), the Spanish flu virus mutated to become more virulent (deadly) and returned with a vengeance to cause two successive waves of infection with far higher global casualties.

To clarify, I am not saying that COVID-19 will mimic the Spanish flu Pandemic, but only that it has the potential to do so and that we should prepare ourselves for that possibility. In such a hypothetical scenario, we can estimate that ~33% of the current global population (~7,530,000,000 people) will become infected (~2,485,000,000 people) over the next ~9 months. If the closed case mortality rate from China for COVID-19 does not change appreciably during that time, we may see ~4.6% of those infected dying from the virus (~114,000,000 people) in the next year.

Global Doubling Rates of Infections/Deaths by Days

Global rates of increase of COVID-19 infections and deaths, organized by days to double, since first cases were identified in each category (580 infections on 1/22/2020 and 25 deaths on 1/23/2020). As of 0:00 GMT+0 May 18, 2020.
Global rates of increase of COVID-19 infections and deaths, organized by days to double, since first cases were identified in each category (580 infections on 1/22/2020 and 25 deaths on 1/23/2020). As of 0:00 GMT+0 May 18, 2020.

Safety Suggestions During This Pandemic

The following are suggestions to stay safe (for the sake of both you and others around you) during this pandemic.

  • Keep other people at a distance of 3-6 feet (~1-2 meters) whenever possible and avoid large crowds.
  • Wash/clean hands well and often (at least ~20 seconds for handwashing with soap, use cleansers with at least 60% alcohol).
  • Regularly clean surfaces, particularly hard surfaces that are regularly touched or exposed to aerosolized viral particles.
  • Cover your mouth when you sneeze/cough, cleaning your hands immediately afterwards.
  • Avoid touching your eyes/nose/mouth, or face in general.
  • Do not fall prey to “alternative” methods of treatment (home remedies including eating garlic, using essential oils, gargling bleach, snorting cocaine, etc.) that are not backed by leading medical/scientific authorities (check your sources, rely on advice from leading authorities, like the WHO or CDC).
  • Be courteous to the health needs of others and realize that we are all in this together (just because you, yourself, are not able to be infected, you may inadvertently help transmit the disease to somebody, or somebody they know, who is vulnerable).
  • You do not have the capability of determining who is, or who is not, vulnerable to infection. There are many different contributing factors, other than age (like underlying chronic conditions and past medical history), and you should treat folks, accordingly.
  • Do not be racist/xenophobic or place blame on the origin of the disease, regardless of where it came from. We are all part of the same species (Homo sapiens) and are all vulnerable to the same diseases, which can travel around the world in a matter of days.
  • Do not fall prey to conspiracy theories about the origin of this disease. Like with many other new diseases, they may not always be properly diagnosed in the beginning (with the first case of COVID-19 appearing to be on 11/17/2019) due to having similar symptoms to existing diseases. This does not necessarily mean that the disease is a bioweapon crafted by the U.S. military. Having genetically modified my own microorganism in the lab, I can tell you first-hand that there are far deadlier diseases to modify and release to the public than SARS.
  • Bear in mind that as of the crafting of this article, there is no cure (although some believe hydroxychloroquine, an anti-malarial drug, may prove useful, despite having no hard peer-reviewed evidence of its efficacy) and no vaccine. Preventing the spread of infection is the key to managing this outbreak. If you experience relevant signs/symptoms, please refer to the proper procedures for seeking medical assistance in your area (perhaps relying on a website or phone call, or submitting a drive-thru COVID-19 test rather than visiting a clinic, directly).
  • Act like you are a carrier/spreader of the disease, as ~79% of infections seem to arise from asymptomatic, or barely symptomatic, individuals.
  • Prepare for the worst, but maintain a healthy level of optimism and a positive mindset.
  • Learn all that you can and keep in touch with updates by your local governing authorities.
  • Do not hoard basic supplies (like toilet paper). This literally accomplishes nothing. You should, however, stock up on enough food to last a week or so (which you should have already been doing).
  • Most of all, remain calm and don’t panic.

There is literally no reason to buy up a lot of basic supplies, like toilet paper, beyond that which is necessary to survive the next ~week or so (per usual). This is what panic looks like. Please remain calm and do not panic.
There is literally no reason to buy up a lot of basic supplies, like toilet paper, beyond that which is necessary to survive the next ~week or so (per usual). This is what panic looks like. Please remain calm and do not panic.

COVID-19 Updates for the United States

As I am currently living in the U.S., I feel it may be helpful for me to produce more detailed information for my local citizens. As of 11:30 pm EST May 18, 2020, the number of infections was 1,550,294 and the number of deaths was 91,981 (producing a mortality rate of ~5.9%). Tracking the doubling rates over time since the first COVID-19 case reported in the U.S. on 2/15/2020 (thru 9 am EST March 20, 2020) gives us an infection doubling time of ~3.6 days and a death doubling time of ~3.1 days.

If these average doubling rates maintain over the next 30 days, then we may expect to see a total of (per the equation, current infections * 2^8.4) ~5,000,000 infections and (per the equation, current deaths * 2^9.5) ~160,000 deaths in the U.S. by 4/19/2020. This is a real, growing concern and should absolutely be treated as such. In other words, if this trend continues, we may see more than four times the deaths by COVID-19 in a single month than we normally see by the common flu (38,000) in a whole year.

Infections and Deaths in the United States by Days

The number of people infected with and the number of deaths from COVID-19 (as of 0:00 GMT+0 May 18, 2020) in the United States organized by days since patient zero (first case) was identified on 2/15/2020.  Source: World O Meters.
The number of people infected with and the number of deaths from COVID-19 (as of 0:00 GMT+0 May 18, 2020) in the United States organized by days since patient zero (first case) was identified on 2/15/2020. Source: World O Meters.

Doubling Rates of Infections/Deaths in the United States by Days

Rates of increase of COVID-19 infections and deaths in the United States, organized by days to double, since first cases were identified in each category (15 infections on 2/15/2020 and 1 death on 3/1/2020).  As of 0:00 GMT+0 May 18, 2020.
Rates of increase of COVID-19 infections and deaths in the United States, organized by days to double, since first cases were identified in each category (15 infections on 2/15/2020 and 1 death on 3/1/2020). As of 0:00 GMT+0 May 18, 2020.

COVID-19 Updates in North Carolina

As I am currently living in North Carolina (NC), I feel it may be helpful to produce more detailed information for my local students, coworkers, and friends. NC Governor Roy Cooper issued Executive Order 116, declaring a state of emergency, on 3/10/2020 and Executive Order 117 on 3/14/2020, prohibiting mass gatherings (where 100+ people congregate in a single space at the same time) for 30 days and closing all public schools 3/16/2020-3/30/2020. He also issued Executive Order 118 on 3/17/2020 closing all dine-in restaurants/bars, permitting takeout and delivery to continue. He then issued Executive Order 119 on 3/21/2020 to expand child care and modify the DMV and driving restrictions to offer further protections for people and to increase access to services. He also issued Executive Order 120 on 3/23/2020 to further restrict congregations to 50+ people, shut down a number of non-essential businesses, and extend the public school closure through 5/15/2020. At a press briefing on 3/25/2020, he strongly encouraged NC residents to stay at home to limit the spread of infection, going on to officially issue a stay at home Executive Order (121) on 3/27/2020 that is valid from 5 pm on 3/30/2020 to 4/29/2020 (and also bans gatherings of more than 10 people). The NC national guard was activated on 3/20/2020 to aid with logistics and the transportation of necessary medical supplies.

COVID-19 was verified as being found in NC (map) on 3/3/2020, with the first death being reported on 3/25/2020. As of 11:30 pm EST on May 18, 2020, NC has 19,023 infections and 649 deaths, resulting in a mortality rate of ~3.4%. Tracking the doubling rates over time since the first COVID-19 case reported in NC on 3/3/2020 (thru 9:35 am EST on March 20, 2020) gives us an infection doubling time of ~2.3 days. If this average doubling rate maintains (as of 9:35 am EST on March 20, 2020) over the next 30 days, then we may expect to see a total of (per the equation, current infections * 2^13.1) ~1,200,000 infections in NC by 4/19/2020.

Infections and Deaths in North Carolina by Days

The number of people infected with and the number of deaths from COVID-19 in North Carolina organized by days since patient zero (first case) was identified on 3/3/2020.  As of 11:30 pm EST on May 18, 2020.
The number of people infected with and the number of deaths from COVID-19 in North Carolina organized by days since patient zero (first case) was identified on 3/3/2020. As of 11:30 pm EST on May 18, 2020.

Doubling Rates of Infections and Deaths in North Carolina by Days

Rates of increase of COVID-19 infections and deaths in North Carolina, organized by days to double, since first cases were identified in each category (1 infection on 3/3/2020 and 2 deaths on 3/25/2020).  As of 11:30 pm EST on May 18, 2020.
Rates of increase of COVID-19 infections and deaths in North Carolina, organized by days to double, since first cases were identified in each category (1 infection on 3/3/2020 and 2 deaths on 3/25/2020). As of 11:30 pm EST on May 18, 2020.

Gauging the Effectiveness of the Global Healthcare Response to this Pandemic

How long do you, personally, think the COVID-19 pandemic will last from start (12/31/2019) to finish?

See results

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

Questions & Answers

    © 2020 Christopher Rex

    Comments

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      • Lori Caputo profile image

        Lori Caputo 

        6 weeks ago

        Thank you for this well-written article! I learned so much fact-driven information which is appreciated in these days of fearmongering or conspiracy theorizing. I hope you will continue to update reflecting new data.

      • profile image

        Coelophysis 

        8 weeks ago

        Tiger test positive the first animal in the us beating out the house cat only other animal close to house cat is serval at the zoo no sign clouded leopard the most primitive cat no trouble the no sign cat are stronger they evolve a stronger cure i thought lion and tiger would do bad because they are specialized to kill big animal there still time but say it’s mild not all cats are tough Pallas cat black footed cat mite die if they catch that they do poorly at zoos the fossa it’s a cat the most primitive cat lets see what it do i here it’s tough i wonder if zoo have one .house cat beat SARS aids covid 19 they can catch covid 19 a mild case there anti body works they kill bats in the past probably still do dog did better they both had no trouble with SARS i here it must be a match with human the animal must match human the dinosaur the gator the most mammal reptile there blood is use to treat aids in human and it works they kill bats cave dwarf crocodile eat mostly bats and it live in bat waste modern crocodilian are great predator like cats maybe it’s the eyes.with all people have covid 19 no cat have giving human it or other animal I doubt it’s going to happen odds are against it it should have happen all ready only bats and that scalely mammal

      • profile image

        Anurag 

        2 months ago

        Very well highlighted and compared the current COVID 19 with the past pandemics!!!

        Hope all to be safe and alert during this period of distress!!

      • profile image

        Cindy Rex 

        2 months ago

        Thanks Chris, for the information.

      • profile image

        Noreen Kemery 

        2 months ago

        Good work Chris. Good information, well written advice. I also like the advice I saw somewhere about looking out for elderly or sick neighbors, offering to pick up groceries or medicines for them.

      • bhattuc profile image

        Umesh Chandra Bhatt 

        2 months ago from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India

        Good work. Helpful.

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