What Were Galileo's Contributions to Astronomy?
Galileo had three big aspects to his professional life. One was his studies on physics, another was the conflicts he had with people in academia and the clergy. This article will examine the astronomical work of his life and perhaps reveal new insights into the man who revolutionized science forever.
One of the first mentions of astronomy by Galileo was in 1590 when he conveyed his belief in Copernicus’ work on heliocentrism. Galileo also references Kepler’s works as well. Upon hearing about this, Kepler urged Galileo to be more open about it politically and if need be move elsewhere if safety was a concern. Galileo never did move away, but slowly his views trickled out into his work. He might not have moved because of employment or because of his family of 3 children (Taylor 57-8).
Galileo starts to write about astronomy. In one of his documents, he discusses many topics including geography, cosmography (or what we refer to as the latitude/longitude system), eclipses, and the phases of the moon. The purpose of the work may seem confusing to modern readers, for Galileo wrote it in the old style of science, i.e. with no evidence or procedures but instead with crazy theories. But when we compare this work with Dialogues, which he would write later in his life and refute many of the concepts here, we almost feel like his sole intention was exposing people to these ideas just to show how the modern science technique was superior to crazy undefendable ideas (59-60).
Not too long after this, a big shift in stellar viewpoint occurred on October 10, 1604. A new star seemed to appear in the sky and was even visible at times during the day. But according to Aristotelian cosmology, the universe was constant and unchanging, yet here was evidence that was contrary to that. Fortunately, the Aristotelians had a convenient explanation: it was simply an atmospheric disturbance. However, when scientists found it to have an immeasurable parallax, they realized that it was far away and not possibly something in the atmosphere. Galileo was not satisfied with this though. What was the nature of this new star? It had upset the balance of the heavens, and his curiosity took over. It would lead him to the use of an instrument that would aid in his most famous discoveries and ultimately to his legacy to science (60).
That breakthrough was the telescope, something that is attributed to him but was actually developed by Hans Lippershey, a toy maker. It made use of refraction, or the bending of light rays, versus reflection via mirrors like modern telescopes. By gathering the light with the proper curvature and material for the lenses and by placing them at the appropriate distance from each other, distance objects could be magnified to several times their original size, allowing for study of distant (and seemingly small) points of light. After reading up on the lens work of Lipperkey, Galileo grounded and polished his own lenses and even worked at the design of the telescope to improve performance starting in June or July of 1609. Galileo’s design used a tube of lead and two lenses of differing radii of convergence with one convex and the other concave. Those lenses had their flat sides meeting each other. Not too long after Galileo built this telescope, he began to test it and make further improvements. And finally, in January of 1610, the telescope was pointed to the sky and the floodgates of knowledge were opened (Taylor 61-2, Brodrick 30).
The Starry Messenger
It was through that primitive telescope that he first saw mountains on the moon which went against the conventional thought of the time that the moon was smooth. And yet here Galileo saw otherwise, though he wasn’t the first to notice but was the first to publish results about it. And then he turned the telescope to Jupiter on January 7, 1610 and noticed small points of light around it. He began to record their positions night by night from February 26 to March 2 and came to a startling conclusion: they were in fact objects orbiting the planet. He could even predict where they would be in the future based on their orbital motions! Galileo also looked at the Pleiades star cluster and saw over 40 new stars there. He published these findings as well as his new viewpoints on the Milky Way in Sidereus Nuncius (in English, The Starry Messenger) on March 4, 1610. The book is dedicated to the Grand Duke Cosino de Medici of Tuscany and in honor of said gentleman the new satellites of Jupiter are named the Medicean Stars. Even though Galileo did not suspect they were in fact stars but something more groundbreaking, he wanted more evidence before making such a bold claim (Taylor 62-3, Brodrick 34-5, 38).
Galileo started that book with the moon observations mentioned before. When he saw the dark regions all over its face, they looked like seas and thus that was their name, though in Italian we say mare. Around them, Galileo could see clear indications of elevation and craters especially when the moon was waxing or waning. From there, he goes into detail about some observations on the Milky Way and the stars in it. When he looked at the planets of the solar system, some of them seemed to be a disc in the sky rather than a point of light. Yet when looking generally at the heavens, he found that stars did not enlarge to the point of being a definite circle, but the number of stars seen did increase. He found that nebulas seem to be clusters of stars, and that the band of the Milky Way was also a collection of stars. After this, he ends the book with a description of his Medicean Stars and how to find them based on his data with 3 being found on January 7, 1610 and another one on the 13th. He does call them planets, for at that time it meant something that moved against the fixed stars of the heavens (Taylor 64-5, Pannekock 228).
Shortly after releasing that book, Galileo continued his astronomical studies and came across a huge discovery. He was able to show that the Copernican motion of the moon around the Earth was indeed true and that other objects in the sky did not orbit the Earth as demonstrated by the Venusian phases. Amazing stuff here, especially with the tech of the time. But to be careful and make sure no one could claim his discoveries for themselves, Galileo released his findings as a riddle and waited an appropriate time for someone to come forward with the solution. He released the answer in November of 1610 (Taylor 65-6).
Of course, technological shortcomings meant that some findings did not hold up to reality. Take for example Saturn. Galileo trained his telescope to it in July of 1610 and found that it seemed to have 2 other planets next to it. Of course, we know now that those are rings but to a person who never knew such was possible and had such low resolution couldn’t help but draw from his frame of reference. It wouldn’t be until 1655 when Huygens observed the rings for an extended period of time and noted that they shifted and were round in nature (Taylor 66, Pannekock 230).
After his riddle was revealed, Galileo presented another one in December of 1610. Many tried to solve it including Kepler but to no avail. Galileo relented on New Year’s Day of 1611 and released the answer. This time it was the discovery of Venusian phases, just like our moon. Note that this wasn’t definite proof of the Copernican system, for the Ptolemaic system too could have such a planetary alignment (Taylor 66-7, Pannekock 230).
His final great discovery of astronomy was sunspots, though history didn’t give him credit initially. That is because he held off publishing the results and sometime later in January of 1612 Christopher Scheimer sees them. Galileo initially felt they were planets that were close to the Sun but then in September calls them clumps of dense matter around the Sun. Galileo wouldn’t publish his findings until March 22, 1613 when the Lyncean Academy releases his three letters. There he critiques Scheimer’s findings and claims the sunspots are actually clouds of material that rotate with the Sun around it. This totally went against Aristotelian conventions, for the clouds according to Galileo are formed by a rotating Sun. Again, this challenges the viewpoint of an unchanging heavens (Taylor 67-8).
Just because Galileo didn’t end up discovering anything else in astronomy didn’t mean he was done with that field. Written from 1625 to 1629, Dialogues was meant to compare and contrast the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems. It was in the form of 4 main dialogues: Causolls’ work, Earth motion, Ptolemaic and Copernican theories, and finally the tides. You could almost call it the anthology of the best work of his life, for it utterly destroys the Ptolemaic system forever and leaves the Copernican theory as supreme. To get around this, Galileo tried to express the ideas as beliefs and not truths. He finished the book in 1630, by which point he was 66 and in poor health (Pannekick 112).
Upon a modern examination of the book, it is clear that Galileo was conveying more than one message. Take for example the Preface. Galileo state that the Copernican theory is not condemned because of people ignoring the facts when in fact he felt that was certainly the case. To further help disguise his intentions, he arranged the book like a conversation between people over a several day period. Each day would cover different topics, and so on the first day the Aristotelian viewpoints were discussed, showing that heir viewpoints on non-changing heavens, motions, etc., were false. Also, debated that first day was the perfect sphereness of the moon and why that was not actually reality (118, 121, 124).
Brodrick, James. Galileo: The Man, His Work, His Misfortune. Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1964. Print. 30-4, 38.
Pannekick, A. A History of Astronomy. Barnes & Noble, New York: 1961. Print. 228, 230.
Taylor, F. Sherwood. Galileo and the Freedom of Thought. Great Britain: Walls & Co., 1938. Print. 57-68, 101-3, 112.
© 2017 Leonard Kelley