What Causes a Tsunami?

Important Tsunami Facts

  • Tsunami is a Japanese word which means 'harbour wave'
  • Earthquakes under the sea are the main causes of Tsunamis
  • The biggest tsunami ever was at Lituya Bay, Alaska on July 9, 1958
  • Earliest tsunamis was in Sicily 8,000 years ago
  • Landslides and volcanoes can also cause tsunamis


A tsunami is a powerful series of waves caused by a disturbance under water. This is usually an earthquake under the sea.

The waves travel through the ocean and cause devastation when they reach land. Humans are often killed and buildings destroyed when the water hits the coast.

To fully understand how tsunamis are caused we must have an understanding of tectonic plates, earth quakes, and finally, water.

Panic: People flee as a Tsunami wave crashes into trees in Indonesia on Boxing Day, December 26, 2004
Panic: People flee as a Tsunami wave crashes into trees in Indonesia on Boxing Day, December 26, 2004
Wave: Japan has frequent Tsunamis
Wave: Japan has frequent Tsunamis

What Is It?

Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning 'harbour wave' that refers to a series of large ocean waves that hit a shoreline. The word originates from Japan because this is the country where tsunamis are most common.

These tsunami waves may be as long as 100km and travel across the ocean at speeds of up to 800kmh. There may be a constant stream of waves that that batter the shore for between 10 and 60 minutes.

Tsunamis are also known as tidal waves, due to their large and powerful nature. They have been depicted throughout history, art, television and film as something terrifying, cataclysmic and almost Armageddon-like.


Tsunamis are caused by sudden movements of the earth that happens under the sea. Often the most destructive Tsunamis are caused by earthquakes but causes can also include volcanic eruptions, landslides or even a comet hitting the sea.

Landslides cause tsunamis when the debris falls into the water. This has the same effect of dropping a large stone into a pool - big ripples are created. But when this happens in the sea and it is thousands of tonnes of rock and earth falling into the sea a very large ripple, more like a tidal wave is created. This travels across the sea until it comes into contact with land and a tsunami is formed.

Volcanoes cause tsunamis when there is an eruption. The volcano can either be on land or under the sea, in which case it is known as a submarine volcano. If the volcanic eruption happens on land, the tsunami is caused by debris and lava from the volcano flowing into the sea, which once again causes a bug ripple.

If the eruption happens under water, the enormous power of the eruption sends shudders through the earth and disrupts the water. The water in the sea then breaks into waves which travel across the ocean until they come into contact with a coast. Here, a tsunami is formed.

Friction: Tectonic plates rub against each other
Friction: Tectonic plates rub against each other

How Do Undersea Earthquakes Start?

The most common cause of a tsunami is fro earthquakes. This is what caused the Boxing Day tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004 and it is also the reason behind the 2011 Japan tsunami.

To understand how earthquakes cause tsunamis we must first fully understand what causes earthquakes. Remember, tsunamis are an after-effect of an earthquake.

The earth sits on about a dozen tectonic plates. These are large floating pieces of hard rock that are constantly moving and fit together around the world like a jigsaw.

Undersea earthquakes happen when one of these plates is rubbing against another at a plate boundary. The two plates may become stuck as the heavier plate tries to slide under the lighter other. This causes a build up of pressure in a process knows as subduction.

As the heavier plate continues to slide beneath the lighter plate, it causes the lighter plate to bend downwards with the pressure. A point comes when the lighter plate can no longer take the intense pressure and suddenly snaps back up to the surface where it had been before.

The incredible force of the earth's plate shooting upwards in the water causes a huge rise in sea level. A vast body of water moves upward - like a huge mountain of water in the sea.

How Does the Tsunami Develop?

Everybody knows that what goes up must come down. This is particularly true for water which always likes to form a nice flat surface. So once the mountain of water has risen up the next step is for the sea to level itself out.

The mountain of water comes back down. This pushes the water that was underneath it outwards. The force of the water moves through the ocean causing an underwater force that travels for hundreds of Kilometres. The force of the water can reach speeds of up to 800kmh as it surges through the ocean. The energy is underwater and is not noticeable on the surface.

As this force travels through the ocean it may eventually reach the shore. At this point, the sea becomes shallower. However, the energy in the water is still the same. The enegery is compressed and the water is pushed upwards. This is how the energy is transferred from being underater into waves on the surface.

Can Anything Be Done?

Unfortunately nothing can be done to prevent Tsunamis. However, there are several organisations that use complex technology to monitor movement of the earths plates and sudden changes in water movement. There are also warning and evacuation procedures in place around countries like Japan and Hawaii where Tsunamis are frequent.

Any sudden earthquake that happens underwater will be detected in the same manner of on on-shore earthquake. These are measured in the Richter scale. If this is recorded then warning systems can sometimes be activated to evacuate people.

Wreckage from Aleutian Islands
Wreckage from Aleutian Islands

Major Tsunamis

  • Japan - March 11, 2011
  • Indian Ocean - 26 December 2004.
  • Papua New Guinea - 17 July 1998
  • Sea of Japan - 26 May 1983
  • Alaska Britis Columbia - 27 March 1964
  • Chili - 22 May 1960
  • Aleutian Islands - 1 April 1946

Read more about the biggest tsunamis in history.

Tsunami videos

Tsunami videos

More by this Author

Comments 217 comments

Holly 6 years ago

Thanks this helped a lot!

Rickrideshorses profile image

Rickrideshorses 6 years ago from England Author

Thanks Holly, Tsunamis are hard to fully understand but glad this page helped you.

shekhar verma 6 years ago

this info. is very short and not sufficient to make a project report. bloody idiot

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Rickrideshorses 6 years ago from England Author

Get off your backside and look at other pages then you lazy fool.

l!lly 6 years ago

thanks a lot this helped me with my project =)

Rickrideshorses profile image

Rickrideshorses 6 years ago from England Author

Your welcome, l!lly. Glad the information helped you.

Aarushi 6 years ago

hey thanx....this info. helped me a lot....

jennifer 6 years ago

thnxxxxxxxxx 4 providind d whole information about tsunami.

suhani 6 years ago

i m really thankful for it helped me a lot in doing my hw as well it provided me a lot of infotmetion.

divya 6 years ago

tsunami is very hard disaster and millions of people die by it

nonymous 6 years ago

thanxxxxxxxxxx for the info

raksha 6 years ago

excellent information i gon on tsunami

amrita 6 years ago

helped for seminar

jitan 6 years ago

thanxxxxxxxxxxx for 4 providing me the information about tsunami. thanxxxxxxx

megha 6 years ago

THANKS a lot it helped me in my project .

Pallavi 6 years ago

Heyy..Thanxx a lot..excellent helpd me in moii project wrk..thanxx again..

Sharif 6 years ago

Thank 4 giving this info. It helped me

ashley 6 years ago

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nazilnoushad 6 years ago

thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxx a lot 4 provdn dainfo.........

stela 6 years ago

thanx 4 d info.its really helpful.

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munirahmadmughal 6 years ago from Lahore, Pakistan.

What causes a Tsunami? Explanations have been submitted by the men of knowledge and scientists accordin to their kowledge and expertise and much awareness has come. The Creator of universe is the Creator of human beings. We all must pray Him to be kind and merciful to all and forgive our mistakes, whether known to us or not known to us. He is Omnipotent, All Powerful. The other aspect is to consider it our test. WE must help the victim to our maximum capacity extending all our abilities in any form. Cooperation and coordination, of course, will be to our human extent. But it will be there. May Allah Almighty, the Creator of all things save all of us from all disasters.

chelsea 6 years ago

whatis a atsunami

shubh 6 years ago

thanks for this

leanne 6 years ago

Thanks a lot.This info is really good-just the way i wanted

Hannah 6 years ago

Thanks a lot!!

priya 6 years ago

thanx tis info relly helped me in my project

Aish rocks 6 years ago

Thanxxxxxxxxxxx a lott. . . . I have been Realyyyyyyy Helped By d pics.....

Rickrideshorses profile image

Rickrideshorses 6 years ago from England Author

Aish rocks, gald the page helped you. Keep checking back for more. Rick

yusuf 6 years ago

thanxxxx fr this

usu 6 years ago

thank you...

Marc Mathew 6 years ago

Good Information

tanmayee 6 years ago

thanks a lot it was a great help in my project

xyz 6 years ago

need little more information

Bambush 6 years ago

Tanx! It has given of more insight about tsunami.

chippy  6 years ago

it helped me a lot to do my project

aish rocks 6 years ago

Hi again.... Thnx 4 d rply, Rick... :-}

minna 6 years ago

thanx this helped me a lot 4 doin my project

iksha 6 years ago

thanks yar this helps me for doing my project and take out more information

heet shah 6 years ago

this page helped 2 get d whole info. abt tsunami!!!


Rickrideshorses profile image

Rickrideshorses 6 years ago from England Author


For all of you that can now read about the EFFECTS of a TSUNAMI here...

Thanks! Rick

khushboo 6 years ago

thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx a lot 4 d info it helped me do my project:)

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Rickrideshorses 6 years ago from England Author

Your welcome, glad it helped ;)

DHARINI 6 years ago

This helped a lot in my project..I got A1 in my project..

Rickrideshorses profile image

Rickrideshorses 6 years ago from England Author

Good, well done!

xx 6 years ago

very informative for students thansssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss

srilekha 6 years ago

many innocent people were met to their death by this massive the saying goes sinners are to be sinned god showed his divine vengence

Rickrideshorses profile image

Rickrideshorses 6 years ago from England Author

srilekha, why don't you try pitching that idea to the grieving families who have lost a child/mother/father in tsunamis?

Sweta Singh Samanta 6 years ago

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val 6 years ago

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Mic 6 years ago

The pictures helped a lot!!!!!!!!And the info was great!!!!!!!!!

Gops 5 years ago

This is truly informative.

Causes, effects, everything in one page!

Thanks a ton!

VKB 5 years ago

thanks a lot. this page helped me do my assignment

Rickrideshorses profile image

Rickrideshorses 5 years ago from England Author

Thanks for all the complimentary comments. Keep checking back for more!

twinkle 5 years ago

hey that's helped me in my assighnment.....!!!! :)

Sujeeth rockz 5 years ago

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TWInki  5 years ago

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HELpeD ME iN MY ClaSS PROjeCT...!!! :)

harsimran 5 years ago

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Bethany 5 years ago

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jesvin 5 years ago


Talveen 5 years ago

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jyoti 5 years ago


anusha 5 years ago

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kirti 5 years ago

Thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxx......... this video help me alot to know more abt tsunami. It was really very shocking & painful

jabannita 5 years ago

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kaushik 5 years ago

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shrutika kedar 5 years ago


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angel 5 years ago

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priya modi 5 years ago

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KLeichester 5 years ago

The information are good. A very helpful and interesting post. Thanks.

ashwin 5 years ago

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helps us in our project work thanxxxxxxxx:)

cats 5 years ago

thank you vey much

asha 5 years ago

He is Omnipotent, All Powerful. The other aspect is to consider it our test. WE must help the victim to our maximum capacity extending all our abilities in any form. Cooperation and coordination, of course, will be to our human extent. But it will be there. May Allah Almighty, the Creator of all

sadaf 5 years ago

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hirak 5 years ago

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classmates 5 years ago

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5 years ago


shraddha 5 years ago

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sara 5 years ago

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AMIN 5 years ago

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AMIN 5 years ago

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hia 5 years ago

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siddiqa raeen 5 years ago

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fatima nigar 5 years ago

this video is nice it had give much imformation about tsunami thank u so much

Ash 5 years ago

Wow the info was really helpful 4 a project i am doin at school wat happened was a tragedy and i feel 4 Indonesia tanx again

swarna 5 years ago

thanq soo has been really helpful for my project!!!

anonymus 5 years ago

extremely good really helped me.thank you and god bless

divya 5 years ago

tsunami is the great disaster

lobonorth profile image

lobonorth 5 years ago

Great Hub, I voted up and useful and confirmed my confidence by linking the article to The Homer Simpson Effect and Nuclear Disasters. Thanks

credo 5 years ago

thanks 4 the info

Hux 5 years ago

Thankxxxxxxxx For providing in4mation about Tsunami

sanya 5 years ago

Can some one please tell me how tsunami is responsible for failure of cooling system in nuclear power plant in Japan?

Polycarp Uchenna Okere 5 years ago

Now that we have a better knowledge of cause and effect of Tsunami, i have a strong feeling of Advising on implementing ways to mitigate – ‘a real danger’. Reclaiming of lands, technological advancement in civil engineering construction especially in ocean bays or overloading of foreseeable substratum, should be strongly checked in recent time. Pretty sure, the effect of 9/11 must have put a check in construction of high rise structures prone to attack in the US and other western world. such ideology ( with the Japanese experience)is a basic necessity especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where I come from.

shiv 5 years ago

thanx to you for helping me and giving very important information about this disaster.


p.vaishnavi 5 years ago

thanks....this is really info but need more about the causes

raajaaaaaa 5 years ago

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Clover 5 years ago

Thanks!!! It really helps me a lot! Thanks!

sheena 5 years ago

thanx a ton

tasnim 5 years ago

gud but very emotional

i feel lucky that i hav not faced such terrible disaster and feels sad about them

sercan 5 years ago

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arushi 5 years ago

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sneha 5 years ago

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Priyanka 5 years ago

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shubhi 5 years ago

thanxxxxxxx for providing a lot info abt tsunami

nishi 5 years ago

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omi 5 years ago

tanxxxxxxxxx for this info

SUSIE42 profile image

SUSIE42 5 years ago

Thanks for another good hub.

anu 5 years ago

thaxxx a lot

smruti 5 years ago

thnxx a a lot f info frm it....again thnx a lot...!!!

funny 5 years ago

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again thanx....:) :)

Sahiba 5 years ago

Thanxxxx a lot.... it was damn informative!!!! Project COMPLETE

sonali 5 years ago


RalphGreene profile image

RalphGreene 5 years ago

I thought Japan was hit by tsunami only once. It also happened in 1983. Great hub! I got a lot of info here.

Ayush 5 years ago

awesome information helped in making my project thanx.............

meenakshi menon 5 years ago

thax a lot for my tool2 on social science tnx a lot

sabera 5 years ago

i liked the info provided here,and it helped in making my project

Arun 5 years ago


Arpith 5 years ago

Good job

whitton profile image

whitton 5 years ago

That video that you posted on here was very scary. It is so crazy that those waves become these huge walls of water that just take out homes and buildings and even a whole city.

Neha 5 years ago

Hey thanks reaaly good work!!

tanu 5 years ago



Deli 5 years ago

thnx a lot u helped me with my project heaps:D

Obada 5 years ago

Thankss a lot ! helped me in my project :)

sree 5 years ago

this page help me in under standing about tsunami in detail thank you very much

Ify 5 years ago

Its fine ya,

Very useful to my project. Wishes for your great work.

NUPUR UPADHYAY 5 years ago


shalini 5 years ago

very much thank as it helped me to complete my project....

nasru 5 years ago

thanx ... this is short bu has lot of info

DaCoolGal 4 years ago

my project is awesome for this!! thnx!!

RESHMA 4 years ago

Thanks,it gives more knowledge

ricky 4 years ago


KuSh GuPtA 4 years ago

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summer 4 years ago

if you could put up something on how volcanoes can cause tsunamis that would be great ;)

nikhil 4 years ago

thank you


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Sankeerth Meesala 4 years ago

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Thanks Dude !!

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rahul varma 4 years ago

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gemma portugaliza 4 years ago

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i have an assignment about tsunami and this page gave a lot of information,,just to say,,thank you

didintLe amishen 4 years ago

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My mom and dad and my brothers and sisters all 10 of them died by the 2004 Tsunami when i was 11 years old and now i am 18 years old

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isabella 3 years ago

this is so hard to watch R.I.P thanks xxx

Roshan Abalkar 3 years ago

this information helped me a lot to know about tsunami

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Karan Mall 3 years ago

MAN i love it i got A+ on my home work!!!

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