Nitric Oxide in the Body: Functions, Effects, and Dangers
A Simple and Important Molecule
Nitric oxide is a simple little molecule with big effects inside our body. Many biological molecules have a complex structure, but nitric oxide contains just two atoms—a nitrogen atom and an oxygen atom—and has the formula NO. It's sometimes called nitrogen monoxide.
NO has many important biological functions. It relaxes the walls of blood vessels, causing vasodilation (widening of the vessels). This allows more blood to flow into the heart and other organs. It also acts as a signaling molecule between nerve cells. In addition, it plays an important role in our immune system and helps it to fight infections.
Research suggests that nitric oxide may have an effect on aging and longevity. The possession of intestinal bacteria that make NO enables Caenorhabditis elegans to live for significantly longer than members of its species without the bacteria. C. elegans (the abbreviated scientific name) is a roundworm and a popular organism in anti-aging studies. What applies to a roundworm may not apply to us, but it is known that the level of nitric oxide in our body decreases as we age. The idea that bacteria producing the substance could be added to our intestine in order to help us live longer is a tantalizing thought.
Nitric oxide is useful in the very low concentrations found in the body but is dangerous in high concentrations. It's an interesting substance that can be a friend or a foe.
Role of NO in the Circulatory System
Nitric oxide in blood plays a vital role in keeping our circulatory system healthy. It causes vessels to widen and open up, allowing large quantities of blood to be transported. Blood without nitric oxide doesn't cause vessels to expand. This means that the blood can't flow as easily through the vessels.
Researchers have noticed that the longer that blood is stored before a blood transfusion, the more dangerous it is for the recipient. This seems to be due to the biochemical changes that take place as the blood ages, including loss of nitric oxide gas. Without NO, the donated blood may block the circulatory system because it can't move through the vessels properly. One scientist has shown that in lab animals adding nitric oxide to blood before a transfusion prevents blockage and allows the blood to flow freely.
Nitric oxide also lowers blood pressure. We have some control over this action via the food that we eat. A diet high in leafy green vegetables and beets (or beetroot) is known to lower high blood pressure. These vegetables are a good source of nitrates. Inside the body, the nitrates are converted to nitrites. The nitrites are converted to nitric oxide. This chemical then expands blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure.
The body also makes NO from an amino acid called L-arginine, which we produce in our body. It's present at a good level in many foods that are a rich source of protein, include some meats, fish, dairy, certain legumes (or pulses), and some nuts and seeds. Proteins are made of amino acids.
Three researchers—Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, and Ferid Murad—discovered that NO acts as a signaling molecule in the circulatory system. In 1998, these scientists won the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their work with nitric oxide.
Nitroglycerin, NO, and Angina
In 1977, Ferid Murad discovered that nitroglycerin causes the production of nitric oxide in the body. Nitroglycerin (or nitroglycerine) is one medicine given to people suffering from angina. During an angina attack, a person experiences chest pain due to a lack of oxygen in the heart, usually due to the narrowing of a coronary artery. Nitroglycerin can expand this artery. The nitric oxide made from the nitroglycerin is responsible for the vasodilation.
As is true for all medications, a doctor's advice should be followed with respect to the use of nitroglycerin. The timing and frequency of the drug's ingestion are important topics to consider. Other important topics are potential side effects and interactions with other medicines. The formulation of the drug is also important to discuss with a physician. The medication comes in additional forms besides a swallowed version.
Nitric oxide shouldn't be confused with nitrous oxide, which is commonly known as laughing gas. A nitrous oxide molecule contains two nitrogen atoms and one oxygen one. It acts as an anesthetic and isn't a normal component of our body.
Nerve cells, or neurons, communicate with each other by means of chemicals. These chemicals are known as neurotransmitters. A neurotransmitter is produced in advance and stored in small sacs called synaptic vesicles, which are located at the end of a neuron.
The region where one neuron ends and another begins is called a synapse. When a nerve impulse arrives at a synapse, the neurotransmitter is released from the first neuron into the tiny gap that is present between neurons. The neurotransmitter travels through the gap and attaches to receptors on the membrane of the second neuron. Once this union takes place, the second neuron is stimulated (or in some cases inhibited). Stimulation generates a nerve impulse. After it has done its job, the neurotransmitter is broken down or reabsorbed into a nerve cell.
Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter, but it behaves differently from other neurotransmitters. It isn't produced in advance or stored but is made when it's needed. It does travel across the gap between neurons, but it travels into the second neuron instead of attaching to receptors and staying at the neuron's surface. It may also enter more than one neuron.
Nitric oxide isn't very stable and only exists for a short time. It's sometimes called a "gasotransmitter"—a gas that is made in the body and acts as a signaling molecule.
Functions in the Nervous System
Nitric oxide has many functions in the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord). It plays a role in:
- learning and memory
- controlling body temperature
- regulating food intake
- controlling the sleep-wake cycle
- regulating hormone release
- protecting nerves
The peripheral nervous system is made of nerves that leave the central nervous system and travel to the rest of the body. In the peripheral nervous system nitric oxide does the following:
- relaxes the muscles in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract
- relaxes the muscles in the lining of the urinary and reproductive tracts
Neuroprotection and Neurotoxicity of NO
Although nitric oxide is very important in the nervous system, it's present in tiny quantities in our body. These quantities are neuroprotective— they protect the nerves from damage. Large amounts of nitric oxide kill nerve cells and are said to be neurotoxic. This might explain why the results of some research studies involving the chemical disagree with the results of other studies. For example, some research suggests that NO administered to a patient after a stroke helps the patient, while other research suggests that excess NO produced during strokes damages brain cells.
What Role Does Nitric Oxide Play in the Immune System?
Nitric oxide is made by macrophages, which are a type of white blood cell in our immune system. The NO kills bacteria and inhibits the replication of viruses.
Macrophages and nitric oxide action are part of our innate immune response. This is a rapid, general, and non-specific response that is the same for any pathogen (organism that causes disease). Our other type of immunity is the acquired immune response, which involves an attack that is specific for each pathogen.
Nitric oxide is a controversial chemical with respect to cancer. Some evidence suggests that it helps the immune system fight cancer, while other evidence suggests that it can actually cause cancer. More studies are needed to clarify the situation.
Aging and Longevity
Caenorhabditis elegans is a transparent roundworm that lives in soil. Like humans, the roundworm has bacteria that live in its intestine and produce substances that provide health benefits.
C. elegans feeds on a bacterium called Bacillus subtilis. Some of the bacterial cells survive and live in the animal's intestine, where they produce nitric oxide. The worms also eat Escherichia coli, another bacterium that lives in their intestine. Escherichia coli can't make nitric oxide, however.
Worms fed Bacilus subtilis live for about 50 percent longer than worms fed Escherichia coli. This is believed to be at least partly due to the presence or absence of nitric oxide.
One research experiment discovered that C. elegans worms fed normal B. subtilis lived for 15 percent longer than those fed a mutant form of the bacterium that lacked the gene for nitric oxide production. The experiment also confirmed a previous discovery that C. elegans can't produce nitric oxide by itself.
Nitric oxide is currently prescribed by doctors for patients with specific medical problems. The treatment must be administered and monitored by a doctor or a specially-trained health professional. The doctor will be aware of safety issues and will be able to advise patients about the potential benefits and problems of the treatment.
Nitric Oxide Use in the Future
In the future, nitric oxide may be very useful as a medicine. A major problem will be ensuring that the concentration of the chemical is high enough to be helpful but low enough to be safe, however. Healthy foods that cause nitric oxide production in the body may be beneficial when eaten in normal quantities. It's not a good idea to eat an excessive amount of any food, even when it's considered to be healthy.
Researchers need to learn more about nitric oxide's effects on the body before it's widely used medicinally. It's a simple molecule but is involved in complex reactions. If NO is administered to treat one health problem, it's important that it doesn't cause another one. Hopefully, researchers will soon make some significant and useful discoveries about the chemical.
- The Vital Role of Nitric oxide from Oakland University
- Role of Nitric Oxide in Biology from the University of Reading
- Nobel Prize in Medicine for Nitric Oxide Discovery from Circulation (an American Heart Association journal)
- Beetroots and blood pressure from Medical News Today
- Nitroglycerin and nitric oxide from the New England Journal of Medicine
- Information about nitroglyerin medications from the Mayo Clinic
- Bacteria producing nitric oxide extend life in roundworms from the EurekAlert news service
- The dual effects of nitric oxide in cancer from Science Direct
- Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for nitric oxide from UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.
Questions & Answers
How much L-arginine should be ingested each day?
L-arginine is an amino acid that is present in our diet. It’s found in meat, fish, dairy products, and beans. Most people obtain enough L-arginine as long as they eat a nutritious diet, so they don’t need to be concerned about the intake of the nutrient. A health care professional or a dietitian can recommend dietary methods to increase arginine intake if a person suspects that they aren’t eating enough.
L-arginine is converted to nitric oxide in the body, but it’s unclear whether ingesting the substance as a supplement will boost the nitric oxide level in everyone. Most people don’t need to take supplemental arginine, but people with certain medical problems might benefit from the substance. It’s important that a person consults a doctor before taking an arginine supplement, however. In a supplemental form, the substance can cause major side effects and interact harmfully with certain medications.
If a doctor thinks that supplement arginine will be useful for a patient’s specific medical problem and that the possible side effects of the supplement won’t be harmful to that patient, they’ll recommend a safe and potentially beneficial dose.Helpful 10
© 2013 Linda Crampton