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Wild Parrots Multiplying in Southern California

Updated on August 13, 2017
Sustainable Sue profile image

In addition to having a masters degree in sustainable development, Susette works with water conservation and sustainable landscaping.

It's a common occurrence in Southern California (SoCal) that residents import ornamental plants, fish, and birds from other countries to live in the area's mild climate. When a foreign species escapes its bounds and invades the wild, it often drives out native flora or fauna, to the detriment of the entire ecosystem.

Wild parrots are an imported species gone wild. They appear to be thriving, with the way they're reproducing and squawking all over the region, but how is that possible when they came from the moist jungle and SoCal is mostly dry desert? How have any parrots managed to survive in the wild at all, much less reproduce enough to be considered invasive, in an environment so different from their own?

The term "invasive species" includes both conditions of non-native origin and displacement, meaning that the species comes from a foreign environment and is driving out native birds with its living habits. We'll look first at the origins of SoCal's parrots, then at whether or not they are displacing local birds.

Red-Lored Amazon was a favorite import that is now found wild throughout California.
Red-Lored Amazon was a favorite import that is now found wild throughout California. | Source

The Origins of California's Wild Parrots

There are 372 species of parrots/parakeets that have been identified wordwide, mostly living in tropical and subtropical regions. In their native habitats, some of these species are becoming endangered, due to a combination of decreasing habitat and the once extensive pet parrot trade. Many of the countries that imported parrots now host thriving flocks in the wild, including the United States.

In Southern California there are at least 11 species of wild parrots inhabiting at least 35 cities (see sidebar). Ten of those species came from the jungles of Latin America, one came from India/North Africa. None came from Australia or New Zealand, which also have native parrots. All came to SoCal via the imported pet trade.

Naturalized Parrots of Southern California

  1. Rose-ringed Parakeets (Conures) from tropical Africa and India

  2. Lilac Crowned Parrots (Amazons) from the Pacific Coast of Mexico (vulnerable)

  3. Red Crowned Parrots from NE Mexico (endangered)

  4. Yellow Headed Parrots from southern Mexico down to Honduras (endangered)

  5. Red Lored Parrots from the Caribbean Coast in southern Mexico down to Nicaragua

  6. Red Masked Parakeets from Ecuador and Peru

  7. Mitred Parakeets from Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina

  8. Blue Crowned Parakeets from eastern Colombia all the way south to Argentina

  9. Yellow Chevroned Parakeets from countries south of the Amazon River Basin

  10. Nanday Parakeets from central South America

  11. Blue (Turquoise) Fronted Parrots from central South America

Australia also has multiple species of parrots, including the well-known budgerigar (budgie). Most of their parrots originated in the jungles of Northern Australia. Over time, as the jungles shrank and weather patterns became dryer, many of Australia's parrots and parakeets moved south, adapting to the dryer climate and thriving there. Had these been the parrots released in Southern California, they would have quickly become invasive.

Caged parrots in Cuba. These smart, social birds are favorite pets in many countries, although importation is now banned internationally.
Caged parrots in Cuba. These smart, social birds are favorite pets in many countries, although importation is now banned internationally. | Source

There is a theory that parrots migrated to Southern California from the jungles of Mexico, but that is likely false. Most parrots migrate only short distances to take advantage of weather changes in their native lands.

However, there are at least four plausible theories that do explain how the wild parrot population started in Southern California:

  1. There are verified reports of small bird traders in the 1940s and '50s who had accidents en route and let their wild-caught, caged parrots free without meaning to.

  2. In 1959, parrots were released from Simpson's Garden Town Nursery on the east side of Pasadena when it caught fire. Rather than watch 65-70 birds in the pet shop burn up, an injured employee, with the help of firefighters, freed as many as he could.

  3. In the San Fernando Valley, parrots are said to have been released in 1979 by Busch Gardens - an exotic tourist attraction theme park set up by Anheuser Busch to draw the public to their Van Nuys beer manufacturing facility. When the company moved its headquarters to a different location, they attempted to place their collection of birds in zoos and private homes, setting free those they were unable to place.

  4. Most of California's pet parrots showed up during a time when importing parrots was still legal - approximately 41,550 in the early '80s, according to Long Beach's Press Telegram News (08/22/13). However, as some parrot species became endangered in their home countries, their importation became illegal and smugglers are said to have released parrots to avoid being caught.

Parents of young parrots teach them how to forage. Because most of the adults imported to Southern California were captured from the wild before being transported, they already knew how to forage or they would not have survived. Now they reproduce in the wild locally, eating fruits from tropical trees also imported, and increasing their flocks to more than 600 birds in some city suburbs. How are those sizes possible without displacing native birds in some way?

Parrots certainly aren't replacing native birds by taking up air space.
Parrots certainly aren't replacing native birds by taking up air space. | Source

Displacement of Local Birds

There are five main conditions ecologists check for to see whether a species is invasive or just "introduced" - i.e. not from around here, but also not taking away from native birds:

  1. Competing for food, water, and nesting sites (resources)

  2. Preying on local species and decreasing their populations

  3. Causing or carrying avian diseases

  4. Preventing native birds from reproducing or destroying their young

  5. Rapid growth, due to lack of predators


Studying the local population of wild parrots in Southern California in this light shows that they are not nearly as invasive as one would expect. They are noisy, true, but not invasive habitat-wise.

If you live in SoCal, do you have wild parrots near you?

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The following exploration of these five conditions is taken from three main sources:

  • Salvatore Angius - started the online parrot monitoring site, Californiaflocks, from Long Beach CA .

  • Kimball Garrett - Ornithology Collections Manager for the Los Angeles Natural History Museum (responsible for collecting and labeling birds).

  • SoCal Parrot - Non profit group that rescues and rehabilitates wounded wild parrots.

1. Resource Competition

Salvatore Angius has photographed and documented the habits of California's parrots and parakeets ever since two of his own escaped in the mid 1990s. He wasn't able to find his, but became fascinated with what he did find and now is planning a full-length, eye-witness documentary. On his website, he has already documented and photographed the eating, drinking, and nesting habits of most of the parrots in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. His findings correlate with those of Kimball Garrett.

Yellow Headed Amazon

Note how the parrot's feathers blend in with the bright green leaves of this tropical tree where it forages. In a native tree from Southern California, which tend to have grey-green smallish leaves, the parrot would easily be seen by predators.
Note how the parrot's feathers blend in with the bright green leaves of this tropical tree where it forages. In a native tree from Southern California, which tend to have grey-green smallish leaves, the parrot would easily be seen by predators. | Source

In 1997 Kimball Garrett studied the birds to see how they had proliferated, what they were eating, and whether or not they were displacing or threatening native bird populations. At that time he counted around 2,500 wild parrots in the Los Angeles area alone eating nectar, seeds, fruits, nuts, and flowers of 55-60 types of trees and bushes. Nearly all of those were non-native, imported trees - eucalyptus, sycamore, magnolia, fig, date, olive, persimmon, pecans, cherry, kumquat, walnut, cedar and juniper berries, golden rain flower, palm nuts, and sometimes bark from certain trees.

Some parrot species eat exotic foods not found in their native areas, but learned from watching other kinds of parrots.

Silk Floss Tree

The silk floss tree is a favorite food source of the Yellow Chevroned Parakeet.
The silk floss tree is a favorite food source of the Yellow Chevroned Parakeet. | Source

Kimball found quite a few interesting parrot eating habits:

  • Some birds are very picky about what they eat and some eat almost anything.

  • Some species eat exotic foods not found in their native areas, but learned from watching other kinds of parrots.

  • Yellow Headed Parrots only have three types of food they like to eat in the wild, especially cashews.

  • Rose-ringed Parakeets, primarily based in Bakersfield, also eat mandarin oranges, apples, sunflower seeds, mulberries, and some cereal grains.

  • Yellow Chevroned parakeets are the only ones that feed on the flowers and fruit of the silk floss tree.

  • Some of the parrots and parakeets will eat from bird feeders, given a variety of the right kinds of foods.

Rose-Ringed Parakeet

A few parrots, if you feed them the right thing, will eat from bird feeders.
A few parrots, if you feed them the right thing, will eat from bird feeders. | Source

As for water, parrots get it from sources that also don't compete with native birds. They scoop it up from telephone wires and leaves of trees, and they suck out the liquid from tropical fruits, nectar from flowers, sap from the giant bird of paradise, and the milk of almonds.

When parrots roost, the whole flock occupies a tree, using neighboring trees for overflow. They tend to roost on summer nights in deciduous trees and in evergreen trees in winter - e.g. eucalyptus, sycamore, carrotwood, and live oak. In areas like Temple City and Arcadia, flocks of 650-750 have been seen roosting all at once. In late summer 5-10% of those are juveniles - proof that the parrots are mating in the wild.

When parrots nest, they don't build nests like smaller birds do, nor do they occupy the small holes that woodpeckers prefer. Instead, they hatch their young in large holes in tree trunks, cliff sides, and old telephone poles. The undersides of roof tiles also provide good nesting sites for some parrots.

Parrots nest in large holes in trees and rocks. This hole is probably larger than it looks, in order to fit a nest, eggs and, eventually, young parakeets.
Parrots nest in large holes in trees and rocks. This hole is probably larger than it looks, in order to fit a nest, eggs and, eventually, young parakeets. | Source

2. Preying on Local Birds

Not only do parrots not eat local insects, but they also do not eat other birds. Because of the prevalence of tropical trees and flowers in the cities of California, there is plenty of food available that is similar to that of their native habitats, but that California native birds don't eat. Except possibly for the Rose-Ringed Parakeet in Bakersfield, parrots leave alone both the food of native birds and the birds themselves . . . unless they're playing. Parrots and crows have been seen chasing each other for fun.

3. Infecting Local Birds With Diseases

Not much is known about diseases that parrots bring, however they have been around long enough that if they were carrying deadly diseases, local populations would have been affected already. In the 1980s parrot importation was banned, so most of those swelling local flocks come from young parrots raised here, rather than new ones coming from other lands. Investigation of dropped parrot feathers indicate that they have pretty good health. Only a relative few feathers contained feather lice and mites, but no dangerous avian diseases.

4. Limiting Reproduction of Native Birds

Local bird reproduction would be threatened by losing their eggs, nests, or hatchlings to parrots, but parrots do not take any of these things. Given their lifestyles, the only way parrots could really affect reproduction of native birds is by taking over nesting sites. Although they may be doing some of it in cities, the birds they compete with there are opportunistic and adaptable, not the native birds that require specific native habitat. Nanday ("Black Hooded") Parakeets are the only ones observed nesting outside of cities. They inhabit the Santa Monica Mountains and bear watching.

Nanday Parakeet

Source

5. Lack of Predators

Parrots actually do have predators in Southern California, it turns out. Peregrine falcons, Cooper's hawks, and red-tailed hawks prey on adults and juveniles. Squirrels, rats, opossums, raccoons, and feral cats go after the eggs and the hatchlings. Human tree trimmers often cut down branches that contain parrot nests, accidentally killing babies. Some parrots are driven out of their nests by colonizing bees.

In addition to being noisy and communicative, parrots are very smart, sometimes banding together against predators. In February of 1996 Karen Mabb, from CSU Long Beach, reported that she saw an accipiter hawk attack a flock of ten Amazons that were flying and foraging. When the hawk tried to grasp a parrot, the whole flock lifted itself higher than the hawk and started crowding and crashing into it, squawking loudly. The hawk flew away and didn't try again.

Banding together against predators is called "mobbing.' Here crows are mobbing a red-tailed hawk, but parrots do the same thing.
Banding together against predators is called "mobbing.' Here crows are mobbing a red-tailed hawk, but parrots do the same thing. | Source

Parrot Invasiveness

My curiosity has been satisfied, and satisfied in a way that I like, since I've always had a fondness for parrots. My mother used to have budgies when I was young (native to Australia), and I've often seen people at fairs carrying parrots and even cockatoos on their shoulders. I was happy to discover that most birders in SoCal do not view wild parrots or parakeets as invasive.

According to Kimball Garrett, "Since they are essentially restricted to highly modified urban and suburban habitats, they don’t really qualify as ecologically “invasive,” although they always have the potential to become so. In a couple of cases (mostly with Nanday Parakeets in the Santa Monica Mountains) some populations are occupying relatively natural habitat for nest sites, and that could potentially spell problems for some native species. But the birds mainly eat exotic, rather than native foods, and do not threaten native bird species in any other way, that we know of."

SoCal Parrot was founded by two licensed wildlife rehabilitators, per their website. They work with the wild parrot population to rehabilitate those that run into problems - like electrocution from wires, being hit by cars, or attacked by carnivores. The group's members consider themselves ambassadors to the wild parrots and they also state that the birds, although naturalized, are not invasive.

Other than taking over phone lines from local birds and chasing crows and mockingbirds, the wild parrots do not seem to be disturbing native birds much. Nanday Parakeets threaten nesting sites, but even they eat different foods from native birds and do not threaten them in any other way.

Wild parrots could be replacing children, however. According to one college student who left a comment on SoCal Running online, he heard "swings squeaking, whistles blowing, and laughter" of children in the playground of a church school during Easter break one year, but there were no children. The sounds were coming from a flock of parrots on the phone lines and trees above.

The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill
The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill

This film's supporting cast, a rambunctious flock of urban parrots, are the true stars of this sleeper hit, and their surprisingly humanlike behavior makes for a wondrous and rare experience. An "engrossing, delightful film." (The Washington Post)

 

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    • profile image

      Fred Fisher 13 hours ago

      A whole flock of parrots have taken over an oak tree in my yard, this last month. A bit on the noisy side, especially when I run machinery, other then that they don't bother anyone. They seem to want to chime in when I run my `13 horse power gas compressor.

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 6 days ago from Altadena CA, USA

      Oops, you're right, Diana. Don't know what I was thinking. Thanks for reading and thanks for the tip. I've corrected it.

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      Diana...Just another Colombian. 7 days ago

      Incorrect spelling of the country Colombia.

      On #8 you write: Blue Crowned Parakeets from eastern Columbia all the way south to Argentina.

      Colombia is not spelled with a U. A common mistake when people aren't familiar with the country.

    • profile image

      Eddie Wiest 7 weeks ago

      A comment for acorniv. A note on invasive species. It doesn't take thousands of years for species to integrate and when they do there's natural selelections that will come into play. The cattle egret and green Ibis migrated across an ocean and up into North America. Now how long did that take? Well I couldn't tell you exactly but I can tell you they weren't present when I was in grade school down in the desert southwest. Now they're there in the millions keeping our cricket populations under control. A very good thing.

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 12 months ago from Altadena CA, USA

      @Randy - I didn't know we had any native parrots here, but you're right! It was the only one. How awesome. Apparently Europeans drove 13 animals to extinction when we took over these lands, and that was one of them. Here's an article.

      http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/animals/photos/13...

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      Randy Godwin 12 months ago

      The Carolina parakeet was a common sight when the first Europeans arrived on the east coast. Unfortunately they became extinct around 1920, supposedly because the old growth forests--which they preferred for nesting-had mostly disappeared. It was actually a parrot rather than a parakeet.

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 12 months ago from Altadena CA, USA

      Probably not very well. Our fruit trees are not tropical, though, so they don't go after them. We just have grapefruit, oranges, and plums.

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      Scott 13 months ago

      I wonder how many of you who are so enthralled would react if these parrots were literally ravaging YOUR fruit trees?!?

    • Randy Godwin profile image

      Randy Godwin 3 years ago from Southern Georgia

      It seemed to be healthy and was perched on a cornstalk at the edge of a whole field of corn. Plenty to eat all around the green bird so I hope it made it to Florida before cold weather set in. I like to imagine it surviving at any rate, SS. :)

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 3 years ago from Altadena CA, USA

      Hmmm. There's a good chance that bird won't survive, according to parrot rescue services here in California. Too bad it wouldn't let you catch it, Randy.

    • Randy Godwin profile image

      Randy Godwin 3 years ago from Southern Georgia

      I've only observed one parrot in the wild here in southeastern Georgia. Fortunately I had a witness at the time. We have a sub-tropical climate down here but I believe it was an escaped pet as it didn't seem too afraid of me at the time. I tried to catch the bird but it would simply fly a short distance away when I got within a few feet of where it was perched.

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      Sustainable Sue 3 years ago from Altadena CA, USA

      South Africa is also losing its one species of parrot, due to habitat loss. Apparently the only tree it thrives on is the yellowwood tree, which forests have been decimated for lumber. Now the parrots are trying to survive on pecans, but there are less than 1,000 of them left. South Africa is starting to replant yellowwoods. Read this National Geographic article: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/06/13...

    • tmbridgeland profile image

      tmbridgeland 3 years ago from Small Town, Illinois

      I know I shouldn't because they are often destructive, but I can't help but cheering for them, when I hear stories like these. From wild boars, to rhesus monkeys and boas, and now parrots.

      One thing to remember though, the North American continent is very low on native species, due to the mass die-off at the end of the last ice age, and a second die-off after the European invasion. So there are lots of ecological spaces that used to be filled and are now empty. The current environment is anything but natural, and the current spread of species is not natural either. GO PARROTS!

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      Sunardi 3 years ago from Indonesia

      I like the color of this Yellow Headed Amazon. Very wonderful.

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 3 years ago from Altadena CA, USA

      With changing weather patterns as well, I anticipate our environmental future is going to be very interesting. I can totally see parrots loving Hawaii and taking over there. I also see why one doesn't see parrots in Tennessee. I was just there with my sister, and that's some flat country! Nice and green, but not too many tropical trees.

      Thanks for reading and commenting everyone. It's cool to see how widespread these naturalized parrot/parakeet populations are.

    • Imogen French profile image

      Imogen French 3 years ago from Southwest England

      We have colonies of wild parakeets living in Britain now, especially in London, and I find it quite exciting to see them. I don't think they cause too much of a problem, but there are other species such as the grey squirrel which was brought in to parks in days gone by and has now out-competed our native red squirrel to near extinction. I don't know what the answer is.

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      Ronald E. Franklin 3 years ago from Mechanicsburg, PA

      I'm glad to see that wild parrots are not considered invasive. I had parakeets as a child, and often thought it would be neat if they could survive in the wild. But living in Tennessee and Kentucky, I never saw any wild parrots at all.

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      Viet Doan 3 years ago from Big Island, Hawaii

      Very interesting hub. Here in Hawaii we also have parrots problem. Tourists think they're native birds but they're not! Originated from escaped pets or accidental released, they're now multiplying fast and taking over all the islands. Huge flocks of parrots (green with red crown) live in the forest/mountain areas where they thrive on wild mango and guava. They make such a ruckus, screeching noisily in early morning when they fly into town and raid the fruit trees in our gardens and farms.

    • CMHypno profile image

      CMHypno 3 years ago from Other Side of the Sun

      Very interesting hub. Surprisingly we also have a problem with invasive parakeets in the UK. If we have a hard winter it thins them out a bit, but them seem to have adapted well to the colder weather. They are a real problem for fruit farmers, make a lot of noise and create problems for native bird species

    • Moon Daisy profile image

      Moon Daisy 3 years ago from London

      Hi, I'm glad that I came across this hub. We have wild parrots flying around North London too! It's really hard to believe, but we've been recently seeing strange bright yellow birds flying through the sky and squawking and screeching loudly.

      We don't know the history of this like you do, but is thought to be due to caged birds escaping and learning to live wild. They're amazing to see, but we worry about how they'll affect the local wild birds.

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 3 years ago from Altadena CA, USA

      Thanks everyone! From the things I've been reading, pet parrots seldom survive in the wild. They have to know how to forage and they learn that when young from their wild parents. With parrots they grew up in a cage that doesn't happen.

      There are wild parrots in Florida too - naturalized, like here in SoCal. Here is a website where someone has been collecting photographs from anyone who wants to donate them. http://floridaswildparrots.blogspot.com/

    • teaches12345 profile image

      Dianna Mendez 3 years ago

      I found your article interesting and informative. I can see why you it is the HOTD. Excellent work. Congratulations! Here in South Florida we occasionally see a parrot in the wild, most likely an escaped pet. It is a shame people do not consider the consequences of having an exotic pet. When they tire of it, they release it into the wild. The after effect is upon the whole commuity.

    • PurvisBobbi44 profile image

      PurvisBobbi44 3 years ago from Florida

      Hi,

      Since I grew up with a parrot--Polly in our home--I wanted to read this hub. Your detailed information and video was very informative.

      I would love to have wild parrots around me in Florida, but so far I have not seen any.

      Bobbi Purvis

      Thanks,

    • Randy Godwin profile image

      Randy Godwin 3 years ago from Southern Georgia

      The Carolina parakeet once thrived in the southeast of North America but became extinct in the early 20th century. Interesting hub!

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      Dr Mark 3 years ago from The Beach of Brazil

      Interesting article. I imagine there will be plenty of unemployed Californians out hunting those birds since the prices there are so high.

    • starbright profile image

      Lucy Jones 3 years ago from Scandinavia

      Fantastic hub and well deserving of HOTD. Scandinavia is more than likely a little too cold for this type of gorgeous bird. We have mostly Eagles and lots of Woodpeckers of various types - but equally as gorgeous. Thanks for sharing your knowledge.

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      acorniv 3 years ago

      Stores sell what sells, what grows easily and what they can get cheaply. Translation: "whatever is a potential problem". This problem - with both flora and fauna, is why we need more, not less critical thinking in schools.

      It is important to inform stores, but also to help discourage bad choices by resourcing alternatives and educating them.

      The library in Waynesville NC is the first in the US (maybe world) to have a seed library, where you can check out native heirloom seeds and replenish them at the end of the season. They have wonderful free lectures on germinating and gathering seeds too. If anyone has an interest in their own library doing that, they can contact the Waynesville library for help in setting it up.

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 3 years ago from Altadena CA, USA

      Eucalyptus is a horrible tree to have in SoCal, yet they're all over. Originally they came from the open, seaside cliffs of Australia, where ocean sprays acted as a fire retardent. But here the spray is not strong enough and we don't limit the tree to the coast, so there's little natural control of it . . . beyond the lack of surface water, which itself is a problem.

      I agree with you completely. I hope people are waking up to the need to chose plants carefully, realizing that local stores are only providing what sells. The store's purchasing staff don't know what works best in an area any better than the local population does, so buyers have to guide them.

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      acorniv 3 years ago

      Some of us are becoming more aware - and some regions are becoming more aware, usually because of some disaster, but as long as non native species are sold as a point of purchase plant in grocery stores, and dominate hardware stores and nurseries, we'll have an ever more serious problem. One thing that is certain - rapid introduction of new species is never good. In the past, the introductions came one at a time (say, one a century or two a millennium) and there is time for the existing flora and fauna to work it out. Now, between world wide trade and ignorance or disregard, we've accelerated it into chaos that few humans notice. You get one aggressive invasive vine like English ivy, kudzu or Virgina creeper, that isn't a food source for anything, and that vine chokes off trees and destroys whole forests. In the process, they create more homes for birds and other fauna, but since they destroy their ood sources, it ends badly in the long run. The same with trees like eucalyptus, which are oil filled and have shallow root systems. They explode in flames and spread fires rapidly. That was what happened with the East Bay Hills Fire and is what regularly happens in Santa Barbara. It's now illegal to have eucalyptus trees in the East Bay Hills ( behind Berkely and Oakland in California) but that doesn't work in more rural areas.

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 3 years ago from Altadena CA, USA

      Thanks for your interesting comments, acorniv. Americans seem to have an addiction for anything exotic - which the yucca is to North Carolina. But do they have the fauna to support it? I imagine eventually with everybody mixing it up the way we are, we might end up with a completely different ecosystem in this country. Whether it works very well???

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      acorniv 3 years ago

      In reference to Arthur Keyword's comment, parrots are birds. Birds nest in a myriad of ways, many of them in crevices. Different types of parrots have different habits. Amazons, for example, are what I call tree chickens - they have a heavy body type and short wings and tail that make it easier to walk from tree to tree than to fly. I've lived places that had flocks of Amazons that were rarely seen, because they tend to stick to the trees, however the mccaws in Santa Barbara ( who roost in my uncle's trees) are often seen winging across the sky.

      Much of Southern California is considered subtropical as are parts of Texas and the American South, so some of the plants that support parrots are native. Santa Barbara is particularly tropical - and where I'd head if I were a wayward parrot. That said, every grocery and hardware store sells plants that have no business in the region they're sold to. The Asheville North Carolina area is abloom in yucca plants right now, because some yucca salesman managed to sell them in the Smoky Mountains. That is not only ecologically stupid, it looks stupid.

    • Sustainable Sue profile image
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      Sustainable Sue 3 years ago from Altadena CA, USA

      You're welcome Arthur. The biggest aha! for me was how the importation of tropical plants and trees in Southern California was what allowed the parrots to survive. You wouldn't believe how many tropical trees there are here! And all in the cities. Parrots are not jungle birds here, they're city birds.

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      Arthur Keyword 3 years ago from Kenya

      this is very interesting, i never knew that parrots hatch their young in large holes of tree trunks. In fact i always thought that their lifestyle resembles that of birds. Big thanks for sharing this amazing history about parrots