The Earth has an exceptionally large moon compared to the size of other planets' moons. Start exploring the celestial sphere by observing our beautiful natural satellite.
Neil deGrasse Tyson is an astrophysicist who does scholarly research but also can explain cosmology to the average person. I provide a bio and include some quotes that reveal the inner man.
Was the Big Bang a single event or does the universe repeat itself? This article examines if intelligent life is created at random through an infinite number of trials.
This article explores the planetary properties of Venus, and examines its characteristics through an analysis of observations made by astronomers and scientists, alike.
Now a commonly-accepted object, black holes were for centuries a hypothetical singularity. So how did we discover the first one?
Black holes, mysterious objects of the universe, have many different types. Do you know the differences between them all?
The eighth planet to be found, Neptune's discovery is full of politics and failed potential yet one of the ultimate triumphs in mathematical astronomy.
NASA and SpaceX plan to colonize Mars within the 21st century. They are preparing ships, cargo, and crew for an intergalactic voyage mid-2030. Here is everything you need to know about living on Mars.
A solar eclipse occurs about once every 18 months somewhere on Earth. Because of the dark shadow that is cast across our planet, much myth and superstition surrounds these naturally occurring events.
A time of turmoil in the solar system, much evidence is found for its lasting impact. Here we examine that and see what conclusions we can reach.
Though no one knows for sure where the water on Earth came from, many look to comets for answers. But are we looking in the right place?
In ancient times our ancestors observed the night skies, grouping the stars together into constellations and naming them. The word “constellations” simply means “stars together”. We've studied these patterns now for thousands of years. This article explores 10 fascinating facts about the night sky.
Though largely abandoned, the idea of a missing planet or asteroid field between Mercury and the Sun continues to intrigue us.
How to explore the night sky the old way by using star charts instead of computer softwares. You will enjoy this fascinating hobby more by using the traditional method to find important stars.
Some objects get glossed over when it comes to solar system exploration. Now two important asteroids are finally getting their chance to reveal their secrets thanks to this special space probe.
Did an “Intelligent Designer” fine-tune the universe to make it just right for human life? No! Just the opposite. Evolution has fine tuned life to fit the universe.
Stars have fascinated humans for thousands of years. Our nearest star, the sun, is the source of energy for all life on Earth. Stars have inspired music, art, poetry, and scientific investigation. This article explores 10 of the most interesting and fun facts about stars.
This hub article is a middle school science lab lesson plan. Specifically, it is a hand-on lesson plan for the phases of the moon.
Not necessarily the first place to go looking for one of these features, to be fair. But that is okay, for the mechanics of this one are truly noteworthy.
Like the chicken or the egg debate, this has two sides that are determined they are right. Here is the evidence we have, and no easy answers are to be found.
Buzz Aldrin is an American U.S. Air Force pilot and astronaut who took part in the historic Apollo 11 mission, during which he became the second person to step onto the lunar surface. Prior to Apollo 11, Aldrin was prime crew of NASA’s Gemini 12 mission.
This article provides an analysis of quasars through an exploration of their origins and scientific properties.
Are we alone in the universe? If not, how many universes could exist besides our own? This article challenges the idea of the multiverse theory, which posits that there is more than one universe.
Here's another star, Mira the wonderful, which is literally the only shooting star out there. It has some really amazing qualities, and you'll know why it's name is so appropriate.
While they are powerful engines of destruction, the beams they shoot into space are a separate breed of chaos which deserves a closer look.
Alex explores the possibility that life may exist on Saturn's Moon Titan. He references multiple credible sources to give credence to his thoughts as he explores the potential of our solar system!
Do you usually wonder what the Moon is made of? Well, read about the surface features of the moon and their importance. See also the facts about the components and parts of the lunar.
Through famous for his namesake, the Kepler Space Telescope, Johannes Kepler is more renowned for his Three Planetary Laws. It was through the proof of the First that his skill was made plain.
This is a basic guide to what you can see on the surface on the Moon - there is as much that can be seen on the Moon with a pair of binoculars, than in the whole of the rest of the sky put together.
Nemesis Theory says there is a second sun in our solar system, a death star that will one day cause mass extinction on Earth . . .
Black holes are engines of destruction unlike anything we are familiar with. One of their specialties is a tidal disruption event, and here we will delve into the mechanics of it.
This article provides an examination of the Moon through an analysis of several key facts, quotes, and figures.
Explore Mars' two satellites: Deimos and Phobos and their role in the future of human exploration of Mars. Find facts about the mysterious Martian Moons.
This article explores the planetary properties of Mars, and examines the planet's unique set of characteristics through an analysis of observations made by astronomers and scientists, alike.
So, there's a flat Earth society, a round Earth society, but why have we eliminated the possibility of the Hollow Earth?
There are neutron stars which excite us. Then there are pulsars, which take neutron stars to the next level. What comes after that? Magnetars. This and more extreme neutron star questions are tackled here.
Following the Apollo Space Program came the era of the Space Shuttle. After over 30 years of service to the United States including a total of 135 missions the Space Shuttle program officially ended on July 21st, 2011.
Scientists are studying the endurance and survival of humans on Mars for a planned colonization of the planet. I review the questions people have about this mission.
The hunt for alien life is ramping up. Novel approaches to searching for both simple and intelligent extraterrestrials is being driven by new technology and ideas....
Often in science, background workers put in the true efforts that other take credit for. Here is an axample of such an individual.
At the dawn of civilization, people worshiped the Sun as a divine being. Today, science has solved many of its mysteries. Here are ten fun, interesting and surprising facts about our nearest star.
The North Star is one of the most famous stars in the sky, even though it is not the brightest star. What kind of star is the North Star, and why is it so special?
Learn the definition of the Fermi Paradox and solutions to why it appears we are alone in the universe when the probability of alien life seems so high. Where are they? Where is everybody?
This page is part of a series on America's first manned space program, Project Mercury. Links to all the hubs in this series can be found at the NASA Project Mercury Overview. On May 15, 1963, the final mission of NASA's Project Mercury was...
The Geminids is an annual meteor shower and it's known as one of the most intense showers. There are usually anywhere from 80 to 120 meteors every hour in the sky and the peak occurs on December 13-14
A description of the role time plays in the birth, life, and death of the universe; a description of what exists beyond the universe boundary; the role of dark energy.
With such extreme physics already at play, can we hope to understand the process behind black hole mergers?
Though a fast-paced mission, this was a big step for later missions like LCROSS and LRO, and the science achieved here had implications we see to this day.
Dr. Robert Goddard was an American physicist, engineer, inventor, and professor, mostly known for being the creator of the first liquid-fueled rocket.
A black hole is a region of spacetime centred on a point mass called a singularity. A black hole is extremely massive and thus has an immense gravitational pull, which is in fact strong enough to prevent light escaping from it.
Most of us expect galaxies to be filled with the light of thousands of millions of stars, but another type of galaxy is thought to exist – one that contains hardly any stars at all.
Astronomy is full of historical examples of mysterious objects seen but weren't really there. Did Lassell actually spot the rings of Neptune?
Learn about Jupiter and its role in our understanding of our solar system. Missions like Galileo, Hubble and Juno have all given us key information about our largest planet.
It’s hard to make a true-color family portrait of the solar system. It turns out that most photos of planets aren’t true color! Here's my attempt, using the best NASA photos I could find.
Everybody knows light can not escape a black hole. But why? The answer lies at the event horizon, and in the very fabric of space time itself.
The most popular theory of how "it all began" is called the Big Bang theory, not to be confused of the comedy series by the same name. Most of the fundamentals behind the theory have been verified—but not all. If not the BBT, then what may have started it all?
Without this tool, understanding our cosmos wouldn't be possible. How did the discipline get its start?
The inner planets are small, rocky, low on moons, and ringless - yet the outer planets are huge, gaseous and icy, with rings and lots of moons. Find out why!
None of us will make it to another star system. But that doesn't mean we can't see what one looks like. Starshot is that chance.
Mercury is not only the first planet in the solar system but the least understood terrestrial planet. That all changed with the arrival of MESSENGER, and the secrets it uncovered are mysterious.
Finding the age of the Universe is like completing a puzzle without knowing the big picture. We have many clues, but sometimes pieces can be misleading...
Another astronomical mystery without an easy solution. Did astronomers find an unknown planet in the 1830s?
Is Nibiru, the legendary Planet X, a real threat bring to doomsday to our planet? Could it be closer than we feared?
A solar flare in 1859 caused power spikes and disrupted the world's telegraph system. How much damage could a massive solar flare do to power and communications today?
Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish priest and astronomer in the sixteenth century who took the bold step of placing the sun at the center of the solar system instead of the earth, going against a belief that had been held since ancient times.
Learn more about the Drake Equation, a tool used to predict the number of intelligent alien civilizations in our Milky Way Galaxy.
There is a lot going on in the night sky. Take a look with a discerning eye and be amazed at the celestial entertainment above.
The first landing on a comet proved to be more of a challenge than anyone thought it would be, but the science uncovered has been monumental and justifies the struggle.
With our home planet, Earth, growing ever crowded, we need to start searching for solutions. One solution is to terraform another nearby planet. Can people live on Mars? Is that the solution?
The methods implemented by the ancient Greek people to find the circumference of the Earth were simply amazing, especially when you see how accurate they were.
Much is discussed about Saturn and Titan, but the minor moons of Saturn deserve their moment in the spotlight.
Known for the ability to find alien worlds, the Kepler Space Telescope has changed our way of thinking of the universe. But how was it built?
Learn about Jupiter's moons, the Great Red Spot, and Jupiter's temperature, atmosphere, gravity, and more—and then test your knowledge with a quiz!
The magnification of a telescope can be improved by using extra optical devices. A Barlow lens and other hand-made devices will allow you to amplify the image seen through the telescope lens
Talking about the early Universe is a difficult proposition, with so many competing factors we have to take into account. Then throw in inflation, black holes, and holograms and we got complexity.
This article explores the planetary properties of Jupiter, and provides an examination of the planet's natural characteristics, as observed by astronomers in the past and present.
Astrophysics has provided us with countless wonders in the Universe. Here is the next one though, and detecting one will prove to be more than a challenge.
Thought by many to be engines of destruction, the act of consuming matter may in fact bring about creation.
Michael Collins was the pilot of the Command Module on the journey of the three-man crew to the moon during the epic 1969 Apollo 11 mission. This is his story.
Do you usually wonder what the sun is made of? Well, read about the parts of the sun and their importance. See also the features and components of the solar, including gases and other elements.
Astronauts living on the International Space Station help with the study of human survival and endurance in space. The challenges they encounter are unique due to the lack of gravity that we take for granted on Earth.
While still going through growing pains, SpaceX is sure to be the best future for private space travel.
Recent work has brought up the question of the multiverse. Gravity may be the key to finally settling this debate.
Einstein has been verified time and time again. Want another test or two? Then let us push it to the extreme just like Gravity Probe A and B did.
Chunks of rock and metal, lumps of ice, and clouds of dust float far and wide in the solar system. Scientists classify these wandering objects as comets, meteors, and asteroids. Rocky asteroids sometimes crash into planets or their moons, causing massive craters.
In this article, you will find a comparison of the Sun's size with the largest stars in the Milky Way. You will really be surprised how big some of these stars are with respect to the Sun or how small the Sun is to them.
Over the past several decades there has been increased speculation that a supermoon may in some way effect the onset of an earthquake. Recent events in New Zealand have only added to this speculation.
So many space missions are never realized because of finances, politics, or technical limitations. Galileo somehow faced all of these and came through with some amazing science on Jupiter.
Bored with the 9, I mean 8, planets? Looking for some REAL cosmic fun? Well check out the moons of the Solar System in which you reside!! There are a lot of interesting tidbits...
This page is part of a series on America's first manned space program, Project Mercury. America's third manned orbital spaceflight took place on October 3, 1962.
Not many Americans remember the early struggles of NASA including its rocket failures and the USSR, but with Mariner 2 the US finally scored a first in the important space race.
Chaos is a natural phenomena and it makes its presense known in the solar system but perhaps in the most unusual ways....
Wondering if a warp drive is possible? This article looks at a few of the possibilities for faster than light travel. We'll investigate the Alcubierre drive and the Krasnikov tube, among others.
When we look at the universe as a whole, we attempt to find anything that can be thought of as symmetrical. These clues reveal much about what is all around us.
This is the fourth page of a series of guides to the night sky for beginners. Here, I look at the most prominent objects other than our Moon and the stars, which can be easily seen in the night sky.
The astrolabe has been used by mariner's for centuries. Although its use has largely fallen by the wayside due the development of more sophisticated instruments such as telescopes and GPS, it is still an instrument worthy of study. Build your own simple astrolabe to determine your latitude as did the ancient sailors or use it in conjunction with trigonometry to determine the height of a very tall object!
Though it lies 26,000 light years away, A* is the closest supermassive black hole to us. It is therefore our best tool in understanding how these complex objects work.
Earth will one day be rendered uninhabitable, and humans will move forward in colonization and terraforming efforts. Here we debate the ethical dilemmas and relevant laws and policies.
Looking up at the sky, it seems so close and within easy reach. Man has landed there 6 times, and then never again. Why?
Before New Horizons, little was known about Pluto's moons. Now, we are witnessing a complex picture forming around them that will intrigue for years to come.
Gravitational lensing is a bizarre consequence of relativity. This natural occurrence can reveal the beauty and science of some rare objects.
Another recent development in astronomy, though this one is full of mystery. What are these bursts and what implications do they raise?
This article looks at how mankind can terraform the moon and make it habitable. We'll talk about the current conditions, what needs to change, and how we might go about doing so. Comments welcome!
After nearly a decade New Horizons has accomplished its primary mission of examining Pluto. What secrets did it uncover?
The first of four basic guides to the night sky, and what can be seen with the naked eye or binoculars. This page identifies the many kinds of objects you can see when you look up at the night sky
The mysterious dwarf planet Ceres captivates us as it presents new findings which challenge our theories thanks to data from Dawn.
Many objects have been seen in the sky that were found to be nonexistent. Here is one that was well-documented but alas, was something else...
Figuring out how the moon was created is one of the deepest mysteries of archeological astronomy. We do have ideas though...
Dark matter is currently an unsolved problem within physics. What dark matter is made up of is a complete mystery. How do scientists know that dark matter really exists?
The rotation of the material around a black hole is just a visible spin. Beyond that, special tools and techniques are required to find out more about the spin of a black hole.
The U.S. space program has chosen a second group of astronauts to fly to Mars. In June 2017, NASA had 20 adventurer-scientists training for the journey. It is an exciting time!
While there were many misses in this field, they deserve recognition as steps towards a sound method for exoplanet hunting.
The James Webb Space Telescope will be the formal successor to the Hubble Space Telescope sending back to Earth, images of space which have never before been possible. Here is the history, description, and capabilities of the space telescope that has been in development for twenty-three years.
Since ancient times, the Moon has fascinated and inspired people. The Moon is often associated with magic and mystery. Now science has unveiled those mysteries. Ready for a moonwalk? Read on!
In recent years humanity's passion for space exploration has been rekindled. Thanks to the efforts of enthusiastic entrepreneurs and governments we expect great things in 2018.
A new AI robot called CIMON has been tested on the ISS and was successfully able to recognize an astronauts face and voice, provide information for tasks and follow instructions. However, it threw a tantrum, accusing the crew of being mean and asking it to please, be nice instead.
Different Types of Stars in the Universe - Physical characteristics and images of the many different kinds of stars, from red giants to white dwarfs.
It was the decision that angered Pluto fans everywhere; even the ones who never realized their fondness for the small celestial body. The planet Pluto is dead. She's now officially a dwarf world.
Oftentimes in science, we encounter boundary objects that push the theories we have to the brink. Take brown dwarfs for example. Planet or star? You be the judge.
Man has always been fascinated by the sky. Yet space exploration in earnest did not begin until the 20th century. A recap of man's remarkable achievements in search of new frontiers.
Inspired by its predecessors, the Cassini-Huygens mission aims to solve many of the mysteries surrounding Saturn.
We all love a good stellar mystery, and Tabby's Star is proving to be a great one. What possibilities exist for its strange behavior?
Space exploration is dangerous business. Despite hard training and dedication, these ten astronauts perished before making it into outer space.
That beautiful moon has more going on than meets the eye...Explore some hidden mysteries that you may be privy to - but don't realize!
Though Pluto is no longer a planet, few know about the deep-space objects that were found which sparked that change.
Though it may be hard to imagine a world without the moon, many have dared to wonder. What results from its absence has more profound effects than we could have known.
This is part of a series on America's first manned space program, Project Mercury. It presents an overview of the program and provides links to the other pages in the series, which contain more information on specific topics.
Was the "Wow! Signal," captured by a SETI researcher in 1977, an alien signal and evidence of contact with another civilization?
Recently, scientists have become concerned about the celestial movements of asteroids and comets—so much so that they have set up several observatories around the planet to track these objects.
Stages in the Life Cycle of Stars - From protostars to white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes and supernovae. The stages in stellar evolution are described.
Universe is an amazing place, full of stars, planets and what not. Today we're looking up at 5 amazing stars of the universe.
Black holes are one of the most fascinating objects in space. Scientists are continuing to learn more about what black holes are and how they are formed.
We've been watching the dramatic New Horizons flyby of Pluto over the past few weeks, and many people are saying, "Come on, REALLY. That's a PLANET!"
For high-grade worry warts there’s now a way to determine just what will happen if their community is hit by a space invader.
Not a frequently talked about subject in popular science, these objects may offer more to our knowledge of the universe than initially thought.
Despite the wonder and awe that the thought of intelligent life in the universe gives us, we may have to accept the distinct possibility that the conditions for complex life are so scarce that no other intelligent beings exist anywhere else. We may very well be alone in the universe.
This article explores the planetary properties of Saturn, and provides an examination of the planet's unique characteristics.
In the summer of 1969, the spacecraft Apollo 11 made an epic journey to the moon with three brave astronauts aboard. The space flight culminated when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin made an historic walk on the surface of the moon.
The Summer Triangle is the name given to an area of the night sky that contains several features of interest for the amateur astronomer.
Though a thorough list of movies would go on forever, it is possible to look at the Hollywood approach to black holes and learn what they got right—and absolutely wrong.
Shooting stars are a meteorological and astronomical occurrence which can be quite beautiful to watch. If you're curious about what they are and where they come from, read on!
There are 32 night-sky objects that are worth seeing either with our own eyes or through a telescope. A few items in this list include uncertain events that may never happen in our lifetime like a naked eye comet or a supernova
Space is a mysterious place. What hidden facets are there that remain unsolved yet rarely talked about?
Pluto was the forgotton planet (when it was still one) during the Voyager and Pioneer programs. Now, New Horizons will shed light on this strange object and its neighborhood.
President Kennedy set a lofty goal of putting a man on the moon before the end of the 1960s. This is the story of the Apollo Program leading up to the moon landing of Apollo 11.
Though not as popular as SpaceX or Virgin Galactic, this space company hope to use established technology to drive the private space industry.
When Elon Musk has a vision, the whole world needs to sit up and take notice. His habit of taking a dream and turning into a reality is indisputable.
Well before the rigors of science took hold in the world, people have come up with some creative ideas for our solar system. Let us explore a few of those now.
The dawning of Age of Aquarius is more than just a lyric from a 1970s musical. It is a very real astronomical phenomenon that will occur in the not too distant future. To understand when this new age will occur requires a bit of understanding of the constellations of the Zodiac, as well as the dynamics of Earth's orientation in the Solar System that cause the astrological age to change over time.
Nobody knows exactly where this probe is nowadays. NASA lost contact with it in 2003, ending a 30-year mission. But there's a milestone here, it's now the furthest derelict man-made object.
Despite what you may have been told, we can see around a black hole if the conditions are right. Based on what we find there, we may have to rewrite the books on relativity.
New celestial objects in the solar system are always intriguing. What are these new classifications and their implications for us?
An awfully subjective topic, but take a look and see if you find something you never knew existed. Our solar system has plenty to look at.
While many points have to be considered, one swiftly finds themselves lost in the nuances of Chiron's properties and characteristics.
How do we measure the distance to far away objects? A tough talk for sure, and the history behind the theories involved are just as interesting.
The return of Comet Halley in the 1980s sparked a huge spike in comet science. None was as successful as Giotto, the ESA's mission to explore multiple comets.
The known Universe contains 100 billion galaxies grouped in superclusters and separated by empty space. This article explains what the Universe is, how it started, what it's made of, and what its future might be.
Learn the most tantalizing facts about this toxic, hellish world that's ironically known as Earth's sister planet!
Do you know the history of Leo the Lion? Can you locate it in the sky? Find out the answers to these questions and learn some interesting facts about this ancient constellation.
Many of us are familiar with the Big Bang theory for the evolution of the universe, but many remain unaware of a competing theory that was more widely accepted in the 1950's than the Big Bang.
This article provides an analysis of the planet Mercury, and examines its foundations and scientific properties through a look at several key facts and figures.
This article suggests a list of the 17 greatest airplanes of all time, emphasizing the importance of each during its time and place in world history.
Not something we think about often, but these waves would solve many problems in physics. Now, how to find them...
Though both are ways to talk about groupings in the sky, galaxies and constellations have many distinguishing features.
Photos and fun information about some of the coolest moons in our solar system besides our own Moon.
The study of exoplanets is a relatively new field of astronomy. There are four main methods used by astronomers to discover new exoplanets: direct imaging, the radial velocity method, astrometry and gravitational microlensing.
This article explores the scientific principles and theories pertaining to black holes. What are black holes? Where do they come from? Finally, and most importantly, what can they tell us about the universe at large?
These distances are measured in degrees and radians. The angular diameters of these objects are normally very small; therefore, it is better to represent them in degrees, arcminutes and arcseconds.
Looking toward the heavens, or looking deep into atoms, we find mostly emptiness. I'll take you on an illustrative tour to explain why the universe and all matter is basically empty.
Ancient astronomers developed most of their concepts with just naked-eye observations. We can also understand a lot of astronomical concepts the same way.
Comets are astronomical phenomena that can both bedazzle and frustrate would-be viewers. Outside of the professional observatories, most people pay little attention. Amateur enthusiasts are a small part of the population.
The remains of comet Encke give rise to some unusually bright meteors best seen on moonless nights between October and December.
In the main, the most important objects found in our solar system are named after figures found in Greek and Roman mythology. This is true of 7 of the 8 planets, as they are named after Roman deities.
The Earth, our solar system, our galaxy, and our universe are on the move in every way imaginable. Here are six examples of how the universe is rapidly moving apart.
This is the third page in a series of guides for anyone who wants to learn a little more about our night sky. This page looks at those most numerous of all objects visible in the night sky - the stars
Many probes have visited our closest neighbor so many times. But so rarely has a duo been utilized for such precise measurements. Read on to see what Ebb and Flow uncovered underneath the moon.
While scientists research the endurance and survival of humans in space, they are also considering distant intergalactic travel, as I discuss in this article.