A fuel is defined as a material that stores potential energy that, when released, can be used as heat energy.
Gas is one of the three forms of matter. Every known substance is either a solid, liquid or a gas. These forms differ in the way they fill space and change shape. A gas, such as air has neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume and has weight.
There are many deadly things in the world that can easily bring our lives to an end. But what are the deadliest? Did you know a Japanese delicacy actually contains the 5th deadliest poison known?
5 properties of water: cohesion, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, lower density of ice, and high polarity.
Paper chromatography is a type of planar chromatography which can be performed faster and in an easy way. It is useful for detection of components in a mixture.
Having trouble with naming chemical compounds? Perhaps you're taking a General Chemistry class in college. I take you through naming step-by-step with discussion and examples!
Teach kids about mass, volume and density by doing this simple experiment with sugar and water. It's the easiest way to make rainbow water.
This article aims to answer some tricky chemistry questions I have come across in my experience as a high school teacher: What is an acid? How do fireworks change color? How do glow sticks work?
It is truly amazing to think about how water has so many unique and amazing properties. But just what is it about water that makes it so versatile, useful, essential, and unique?
Recycling plastic is essential for the well-being of our planet. Before plastic can be recycled, it must be sorted and separated, either at source or at a recycling facility. This article gives simple guidelines to easily identify different types of plastic in line with the international plastic identification code.
Formic acid is found in the sprayed venom of some ants and the secretions of some stinging nettles. The acid is dangerous at high concentrations but has important uses.
Electrolysis is the process in which a chemical reaction is started with electricity (Andersen). This is usually done with liquids and especially with ions dissolved in water. Electrolysis is used widely in today's industry and is a part of the...
This article takes a look closer look at the oxidizing type of permanent hair dye and how it works on a scientific level.
A completed lab report that explains the process of determining different aldehydes and ketones, thus classifying them in their respective groups. Includes Method, Abstract, Results, Intro etc.
What is fractional distillation? How does it work Why is crude oil both important and useless? What is cracking? What is supply and demand? Why do long hydrocarbons have higher boiling points? Modern living is built on crude oil - this hub explains how crude oil is changed into the things we use everyday, from petrol to plastic!
In this site I discuss 3 possible avenues to nitric acid preparation. They all involve a nitrate salt and a strong acid.
REMPI-TOF stands for Resonance Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization - Time-of-Flight. It is a highly sensitive spectroscopy method for investigation of electron excitation.
Fun dry ice experiments. Make foggy bubbles, screaming metal, frost things over, pop the caps off containers, blow up a balloon, and more.
Bleach has potent antimicrobial properties and is also able to remove stains from fabrics. It has many uses, but it's potentially dangerous.
Because caffeine is a substance used by the young and old in every country and on every continent its effects affect billions. In order to better understand these effects we must examine first where and why caffeine exists. We must observe its impact in nature on animals, plants and the environment that reveal the potential ways in which it can change, even destroy, life. Then, we will look at how it relates specifically to us, at the many pathways it impacts in our bodies once we ingest it, a
Paper chromatography is a useful technique used to separate the components of a solution. Kids can learn some simple chemistry by watching or performing this process.
A hydrate is a compound that absorbs water molecules and incorporates them into its structure. Inorganic, organic, and gas hydrates exist. The latter may become an important energy source.
A detailed guide on how to make litmus paper using red cabbage to test whether substances are acidic or basic. Bases turn green or blue whilst acids turn it red.
As a teacher, particles are one of the first topics I teach pupils upon entering High School. This hub investigates the weird and wonderful world of particles. How do you draw particle diagrams? How many states of matter are there? What is Plasma? What is absolute zero?
Here is an example of A-level biology coursework on the effect of substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) on the rate of activity of the enzyme catalase.
If you're worried about the dangers of chemical fires, and are curious as to how they start and how to douse them, come take a look at this article!
A detailed article on neutral litmus paper, acids and bases, testing for acid rain, and how to make acids or bases neutral.
A redox reaction is a reaction that involves both oxidation (the loss of electrons) and reduction (the gain of electrons). In order to identify whether a reaction is redox or not, you can write separate half equations that show how electrons are...
Recent advancements in the field of food processing and packaging have been focused on improving the quality and product shelf life. Edible packaging film is one such advancements that can meet many of the current problems. This article gives you the basic idea about edible films and coatings.
Chocolate is a snack beloved by millions. But what exactly is in the sweet treat? How long has it been around for? Is it really an aphrodisiac and antidepressant? And why on earth is it so addictive?
How is form related to function? How does primary structure influence tertiary structure? What is the secondary structure of a protein? What is tertiary for that matter? This hub answers these questions and more.
Rediscovered by David Hudson, Ormus is an m-state element used by alchemists to revitalize the mind, body, and spirit. Ormus is used for health, anti-aging, meditation, and connecting to the divine.
Chemical reactions take place at the molecular level, when the atoms and molecules of the things you start with (reactants) turn into something new (products). All chemical reactions can be split generally into six different categories: ...
Chemistry can be a very difficult subject to grasp, but is essential for understanding how the world around us truly works. To truly understand Chemistry, one must start with the basics.
If all the elements are arranged in the order of their atomic weights, a periodic repetition of properties is obtained. This is expressed by the law of periodicity.— Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev
Caffeine isn't a simple additive to your morning drink, it is in fact a psychoactive drug. Here is a brief understanding of the course and actions it takes once it enters your system.
The reactions of matter whether occurring in natural processes or in the laboratories can be interpreted using another language of chemistry – the equation. A chemical reaction transforms one or more substances into a set of different substances. The substances that enter into a chemical reaction are called reactants and the substances formed are the products.
Barium is an elusive element with not many industrial uses when compared with other metals such as aluminum. However, from a medical drink to rat poison, it would be inaccurate for one to say it didn't have an interesting array of applications.
Chloroform can act an anesthetic, but it’s toxic and causes serious health problems. There are ways to limit our exposure to the chloroform in the environment.
A look at the active ingredients in Clorox wipes and Clorox Clean-up and a description of how they work on a scientific level.