A captivating red-orange chalcedony, carnelian has garnered significance in cultures around the globe. Formed from iron impurities in the formation of chalcedony, carnelian is popular with geologists and mystics alike.
The Taal Volcano of the Philippines is unusual in that it is a recently-developed volcano situated inside a much older supervolcano that is no longer active. This set-up is not unique in the natural world, for similar arrangements can be found at Crater Lake in the US and Lake Taupo in New Zealand.
To any student of geology and natural disasters, there is no way around it, the "Ring of Fire" is the most seismic active place on the planet. About 70% of the world's volcanoes and earthquakes take place here. Nonetheless, many dangerous volcanoes can be found elsewhere around the planet.
If you want to identify a mineral, you need to examine its properties. This is a guide to how scientists identify minerals by their physical properties.
The theory of plate tectonics grew from Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift and incorporates modern data such as the magnetic record of the seafloor. The theory of plate tectonics helps to explain natural phenomena such as volcanic island arcs, large mountain belts, and seamount chains.
These phrases are known by most us: Flushing it down the toilet, a diamond in the rough, a pearl in the wild. They all refer to finding value where none is expected. As it turns out, human waste contains precious metals and gems washed down the drain unconsciously during our hurried lives.
Millennia have vanished, taking species and ecosystems with it. Fossils restore the broken mosaic of prehistory, providing insights into how animals lived and died. Recent riddles included glass pearls inside clams, where butterflies got their legs from and a toe that continues to defy explanation.
Time is money. Even an amateur prospector can improve the odds of making some coin by classifying in conjunction with sluicing. Saving your back by shoveling once can cut the medical bills! A high banker can do all this and more. Fundamentals, design, physics, and mechanical descriptions follow.
The Bolshaya Udina volcano in Siberia is coming back to life. This Russian volcano situated along the dangerous Ring of Fire has shown so much seismic activity over the past few years that its classification has changed from extinct to active. Some scientists think that it could erupt at any time.
Hydraulic fracturing is a type of drilling and mining for oil and natural gas. Fracking wells are typically built on shale deposits that contain significant reserves of natural gas. Fracking may be causing earthquakes, and uses chemicals that are toxic.
The idea of going to the centre of the Earth was brought to prominence in Jules Verne's classic 1884 Sci-Fi novel 'Journey to the Centre of the Earth, but how far have we gone towards this goal?
This guide will teach you how to estimate the classification of a soil and how to describe its characteristics, based on the Unified Soil Classification System. It is intended for use in construction materials testing but can be useful for anyone who works with soil.
On August 27th 1883, after a long period of relative quiet, the Krakatoa volcano located between Java and Sumatra, roared to live. During the eruption, the island mountain blew itself apart, killing over 30,000 people in the process. Today, Krakatoa is back, but in a much smaller way.
At any point on the earth's surface, if you dig down far enough, you will come to rock. Rocks are the building blocks of the earth's crust. There are many different types of rock, and they are all composed of one or more minerals. This article explores 10 fascinating facts about rocks and minerals.
Volcanoes occur where magma (molten rock) from deep inside the earth forces its way to the surface. The magma may erupt as red-hot lava, or may explode into clouds of ash and volcanic bombs. Volcanic activity also produces strange landscapes of gushing geysers, steamy lakes, and bubbling mud pools.
The continents are the seven huge land masses that make up most of the earth's land surface. They are always on the move, shifted around by forces deep inside the earth. The concept of moving continents is known as "continental drift". The study of these movements is called "plate tectonics".
Carbon Capture and Storage is a important tool that tackles climate change, provides energy security, creates jobs and economic prosperity. The types of CCS are described and the technology, capture, transportation and storage are all described. This stops greenhouse gases from polluting our skies.
A landslide tsunami, also called a megatsunami, can be created when large amounts of earthen material slides into a body of water, creating a tsunami type wave. These waves can be much taller than a normal tsunami that usually occurs when an underwater earthquake shakes up the sea floor.
Scientific use of the term "super" is rather rare, as it tends to be a superlative more often found in our common vernacular than in the annals of science. Nonetheless, geologists have assigned a set value of parameters to define the monstrous geologic events, better known as supervolcanoes.
West Coast volcanoes have been relatively quiet since 1980, when Mt. St. Helens exploded and killed over 50 people. Nonetheless, the West Coast has, at the very least, another half dozen active volcanoes that could erupt in the near future and create a dangerous situation for anyone living nearby.
The world's oldest and biggest crater rests a few hundred kilometers away from the city of Johannesburg. In addition to its unique size and age, this hole in the ground is a tourist attraction, wildlife hub and a scientific jaw-dropper.
Originally, the active volcanoes on Hawai'i Island were thought to be part of the infamous "Ring of Fire". Current scientific opinion and research suggests that a geothermal hot spot sitting underneath the "Big Island" is responsible for the high amount of geothermal activity.
Volcanoes are fascinating and sometimes terrifying natural events that occur at many places around the world. Understanding the science behind the creation and eruption of a volcano can better help us comprehend both the detrimental and beneficial effects that volcanic activity can bring.
A guide to identifying beach stones found along the shorelines of Lake Michigan, with photos and info about syenite, rhyolite, pumice, dolomite, quartz, wishing stones, heart stones, quartzite, Presque Island serpentinite, diabase, pegmatite, conglomerate, and banded metamorphic rocks!
Steamboat Geyser, the largest in the world, has erupted for the 5th time in 2018, generating a lot of media attention
Fool's Gold, chemical name pyrite, is a puzzling mineral that has baffled gold prospectors for centuries. This article details the differences between pyrite and true gold and explains why the humble rock isn't nearly as valuable as its golden lookalike.
Ground modification and improvement is often necessary to prepare the ground for a foundation to support a building or other infrastructure. This article explains nine difference deep ground modification techniques and how they are used.
Slow-going and dangerous it may have been, but ancient mining techniques were clever. The earliest mines sought cosmetic pigments for funerals. Picks and hammer stones are examples of stone age tools. Later, ancient man discovered metals which provided materials for superior weapons and tools.
Fascinating facts and photos featuring the most common beach stones found along Lake Michigan shorelines, as well as several unusual kinds; includes various types of basalt, septarian, limestone, granite, gabbro, diorite, gneiss, schist, sandstone, silt stone, mudstone, geodes, chalcedony and agate.
One of the most important materials in the modern economy is graphene. It’s a key material for a variety of products and is essential for a number of industries. The extraction of graphene is an expensive, energy intensive process.
A brief outline of how oil converts to gasoline and makes it into your gas tank.
This essay looks into the geographical processes that form and transform coastal environments.
Mud is a versatile and interesting material. It's useful for both animals and humans. It can also be dangerous, especially in the form of mud volcanoes and mudflows.
About 74,000 years ago, a volcanic explosion on the island of Sumatra threw so much ash into the atmosphere that all human life may have been threatened.
If you were designing a bomb shelter to prepare for the end of the world, what kind of metal would you build with? Find the smartest answer here.