Carnelian: Formation, Characteristics, and Folklore
A captivating red-orange chalcedony, carnelian has garnered significance in cultures around the globe. Formed from iron impurities in the formation of chalcedony, carnelian is popular with geologists and mystics alike.
A Volcano Within a Volcano: Portrait of the Taal Volcano
The Taal Volcano of the Philippines is unusual in that it is a recently-developed volcano situated inside a much older supervolcano that is no longer active. This set-up is not unique in the natural world, for similar arrangements can be found at Crater Lake in the US and Lake Taupo in New Zealand.
Ten Dangerous Volcanoes Not Located on the Ring of Fire
To any student of geology and natural disasters, there is no way around it, the "Ring of Fire" is the most seismic active place on the planet. About 70% of the world's volcanoes and earthquakes take place here. Nonetheless, many dangerous volcanoes can be found elsewhere around the planet.
7 Physical Properties of Minerals Used to Identify Them
If you want to identify a mineral, you need to examine its properties. This is a guide to how scientists study and identify the physical properties of minerals.
Five Key Principles of Relative Dating in Geology
How do geologists know how old a rock is? To determine the relative ages of rock units and create a timeline for geologic events in an area, geologists follow five key principles of relative dating. Read on to learn what they are.
Evolution of the Theory of Plate Tectonics
The theory of plate tectonics grew from Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift and incorporates modern data such as the magnetic record of the seafloor. The theory of plate tectonics helps to explain natural phenomena such as volcanic island arcs, large mountain belts, and seamount chains.
Mining for Metals in the Waste We Create
These phrases are known by most of us: flushing it down the toilet, a diamond in the rough, a pearl in the wild. They all refer to finding value where none is expected. As it turns out, human waste contains precious metals and gems washed down the drain unconsciously during our hurried lives.
10 Fascinating Fossils With Mysteries or Rare Features
Millennia have vanished, taking species and ecosystems with it. Fossils restore the broken mosaic of prehistory, providing insights into how animals lived and died. Recent riddles included glass pearls inside clams, where butterflies got their legs from and a toe that continues to defy explanation.
The Highbanker: An Automatic Power Sluice
Time is money. Even an amateur prospector can improve the odds of making some coin by classifying in conjunction with sluicing. Saving your back by shoveling once can cut the medical bills! A highbanker can do all this and more. Fundamentals, design, physics, and mechanical descriptions follow.
Russian Volcanoes on the Ring of Fire
Bolshaya Udina, a volcano in Siberia, is coming back to life. This Russian volcano situated along the dangerous Ring of Fire has shown so much seismic activity over the past few years that its classification has changed from extinct to active. Some scientists think that it could erupt at any time.
The Deepest Hole in the Earth - Kola Superbole Hole
The idea of going to the centre of the Earth was brought to prominence in Jules Verne's classic 1884 Sci-Fi novel 'Journey to the Centre of the Earth, but how far have we gone towards this goal?
Visual-Manual Soil Classification and Description
This guide will teach you how to estimate the classification of a soil and how to describe its characteristics, based on the Unified Soil Classification System. It is intended for use in construction materials testing but can be useful for anyone who works with soil.
Krakatoa: The Monster Volcano
On August 27th 1883, after a long period of relative quiet, the Krakatoa volcano located between Java and Sumatra, roared back to life. During the eruption, the island mountain blew itself apart, killing over 30,000 people in the process. Today, Krakatoa is back, but in a much smaller way.
Top 10 Interesting and Fun Facts About Rocks, Minerals, and Crystals
At any point on the earth's surface, if you dig down far enough, you will come to rock. Rocks are the building blocks of the earth's crust. There are many different types of rock, and they are all composed of one or more minerals. This article explores 10 fascinating facts about rocks and minerals.
Top 10 Interesting and Fun Facts About Volcanoes
Volcanoes occur where magma (molten rock) from deep inside the earth forces its way to the surface. The magma may erupt as red-hot lava, or may explode into clouds of ash and volcanic bombs. Volcanic activity also produces strange landscapes of gushing geysers, steamy lakes, and bubbling mud pools.
Top 10 Interesting Facts About the Continents and Continental Drift
The continents are the seven huge land masses that make up most of the earth's land surface. They are always on the move, shifted around by forces deep inside the earth. The concept of moving continents is known as "continental drift". The study of these movements is called "plate tectonics".
Landslide Tsunamis: Are They Dangerous?
A landslide tsunami, also called a megatsunami, can be created when large amounts of earthen material slides into a body of water, creating a tsunami type wave. These waves can be much taller than a normal tsunami that usually occurs when an underwater earthquake shakes up the sea floor.
Supervolcanoes: Past, Present and Future
Scientific use of the term "super" is rather rare, as it tends to be a superlative more often found in our common vernacular than in the annals of science. Nonetheless, geologists have assigned a set value of parameters to define the monstrous geologic events, better known as supervolcanoes.
Seven West Coast Volcanoes Worth Watching
West Coast volcanoes have been relatively quiet since 1980, when Mt. St. Helens exploded and killed over 50 people. Nonetheless, the West Coast has, at the very least, another half dozen active volcanoes that could erupt in the near future and create a dangerous situation for anyone living nearby.
Hawaii's Volcanoes: Ring of Fire or Geothermal Hotspots?
Originally, the active volcanoes on Hawai'i Island were thought to be part of the infamous "Ring of Fire." Current scientific opinion and research suggest that a geothermal hot spot sitting underneath the "Big Island" is responsible for the high amount of geothermal activity.
Volcanoes are fascinating and sometimes terrifying natural events that occur at many places around the world. Understanding the science behind the creation and eruption of a volcano can better help us comprehend both the detrimental and beneficial effects that volcanic activity can bring.
Common Beach Stone Identification (Including Dolomite, Quartz, Serpentine, Syenite, and More)
A guide to identifying beach stones found along the shorelines of Lake Michigan, with photos and info about syenite, rhyolite, pumice, dolomite, quartz, wishing stones, heart stones, quartzite, Presque Island serpentinite, diabase, pegmatite, conglomerate, and banded metamorphic rocks.
Geotechnical Engineering: Types and Methods of Deep Ground Modification
Ground modification and improvement are often necessary to prepare the ground for a foundation to support a building or other infrastructure. This article explains nine different deep ground modification techniques and how they are used.
Ancient Mining Tools and Techniques
Slow-going and dangerous it may have been, but ancient mining techniques were clever. The earliest mines sought cosmetic pigments for funerals. Picks and hammer stones are examples of stone age tools. Later, ancient man discovered metals which provided materials for superior weapons and tools.
Identifying the Rocks of Lake Michigan (Geode, Septarian, Agate, and More)
Fascinating facts and photos featuring the most common beach stones found along Lake Michigan shorelines, as well as several unusual kinds; includes various types of basalt, septarian, limestone, granite, gabbro, diorite, gneiss, schist, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, geodes, chalcedony and agate.
From Oil to Fuel: How Gasoline Makes It to Your Gas Tank
A brief outline of how oil converts to gasoline and makes it into your gas tank.
Geographical Processes That Form and Transform Coastal Environments
Learning about geography? This article looks into the geographical processes that form and transform coastal environments.
Mud of the Earth: Composition, Dangers, and Interesting Uses
Mud is a versatile material. It's useful for both animals and humans. It can also be dangerous, especially in the form of mud volcanoes and flows.
Did the Mount Toba Eruption Almost Wipe Out Humans?
About 74,000 years ago, a volcanic explosion on the island of Sumatra threw so much ash into the atmosphere that all human life may have been threatened.
What Are the Strongest & Hardest Metals Known to Mankind?
If you were designing a bomb shelter to prepare for the end of the world, what kind of metal would you build with? Find the smartest answer here.
Geologic Hazards: All About Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater Pumping
Land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal poses a significant threat to governments, businesses, and the general public.
Facts About Azurite: Description, Properties, and Uses
This article is about the azurite mineral that is famous for its vibrant blue color. It is a unique secondary copper mineral frequently found in oxidized zones of copper ore deposits. Read on to learn some azurite facts.