Hair loss is a frequently caused side effect of drugs but hair color is another adverse effect that is rare but bothersome. Black or brown hair changing to blond, greying or reddening of hair, and darkening of originally grey hair have been reported in many cases.
Tiny microplastic particles are produced from plastic waste. The particles enter the human body in a variety of ways. Their effects on the body are unknown.
Human African trypanosomiasis is a significant tropical disease, affecting around 65 million people per year in over 30 countries. Treatment is particularly difficult as the parasite has evolved several mechanisms to evade and manipulate the host's immune system in order to survive in the host.
Paneth cells are found in the glands of the small intestine. They play an important role in keeping the intestinal lining in good condition. A problem with autophagy or unfolded proteins in the cells has been repeatedly linked to Crohn's disease.
Bispecific antibodies can bind two different antigens simultaneously. With over 100 formats in the development it is one of the fastest growing class of investigational drugs.
Interstitial fluid bathes cells, giving them nutrients and removing wastes. The interstitium is the space containing the fluid. Some scientists believe that fluid-filled spaces in the body are connected, forming an organ. The spaces may play a role in transporting cancer cells.
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts control the production and disintegration of bone and the amount of calcium released from the bones into the bloodstream.
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a very serious problem. Phage therapy—treatment with viruses that attack bacteria—may be the solution.
Mucus has vital functions, such as trapping germs in the airways, protecting the stomach lining from an acid attack, and lubricating the passage of materials through the digestive tract. Excess mucus can cause health problems, however. Mucus in the nose is often referred to as snot.
The deadly nightshade plant, or belladonna, is extremely poisonous. It contains atropine, which is potentially dangerous but has important medical uses.
Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the circle of Willis are important parts of the brain. They are named after the famous scientists who discovered them.
Adrenaline or epinephrine is a hormone made by the adrenal gland. It plays an important role in the fight or flight response and in treating anaphylaxis.
The wood frog survives freezing. A study of its adaptations for survival may be helpful in understanding human health problems and in the use of organs for transplants.
The 'Spermbot' is the latest breakthrough in nanotechnology, but how does it work and what else could it be used for?
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), otherwise known as sleeping sickness, affecting millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.