Misfolded proteins are believed to be the cause of many serious human diseases. Pharmacoperones are chemicals that may be able to correct misfolding.
Some sunscreens contain tiny nanoparticles that may be detrimental to health. English ivy produces nanoparticles that may make a safer sunscreen.
This hub explains the differences between blood types A, B, AB, and O. Positive and negative properties of these types are also explained.
Glaucoma is a vision problem caused by damage to the optic nerve. The pressure in the eyeball is often increased, but the disease is not fully understood. Recent research may change this situation.
Lung volumes and capacities tend to vary with age, sex, ethnicity and built. Alterations in the lung volumes are used to diagnose obstructive and restrictive lung diseases.
Mucus has vital functions, such as trapping germs in the airways, protecting the stomach lining from an acid attack, and lubricating the passage of materials through the digestive tract. Excess mucus can cause health problems, however. Mucus in the nose is often referred to as snot.
Surface tension increases the tendency of the alveoli to collapse. Surfactant decreases the surface tension in the lungs and thus decrease the work of breathing, minimizes collapse and oedema.
Several U.S. universities operate outdoor sites where human bodies are left to decompose naturally to aid forensic investigators.
Neurons are highly specialized cells that transmit electrical and chemical signals to target cells. Their anatomy makes them extremely efficient at receiving and transmitting these signals.
Some of us fall asleep quickly, some toss and turn before drifting off - but we all fall asleep sooner or later. Here's the science behind why we go to sleep.
Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the circle of Willis are important parts of the brain. They are named after the famous scientists who discovered them.
Researchers have found that people with osteoarthritis seem to have a lower than normal level of FOXO proteins in their damaged joints. Increasing the protein level might help to treat the disease.
The semicircular canals are located in the inner ear and are responsible for detecting motion and acceleration. Disorders of the vestibular system include Meniere's Disease and Benign Peroxysmal Positional Vertigo.
Do you have a hernia repair scheduled? Are you wondering what surgical mesh is? This article will give tell you what mesh is, what problems may occur, and how to help the healing process.
Giardia is an interesting parasite that causes an unpleasant intestinal disorder called giardiasis. Understanding the parasite's features and behaviour may lead to better treatments for the disorder.
Can consciousness survive after death? A disturbing new study discovers brain activity in brains preserved in specimen jars.
The developing world has a large number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Learn about the factors influencing the spread of HIV/AIDS in the developing countries, and see some ways to stop the epidemic.
Estrogen replacement therapy have been in use for the treatment of osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Studies suggest the effectiveness of HRT in preventing dementia if used near the menopause.
Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium that can have big effects on humans. It's a common cause of foodborne illness and may cause multiple sclerosis.
Mother Natures uses colors in weird and wonderful ways. You can see this in the eyes of people with Heterochromia iridum, people with two different colored eyes.
What is the rarest blood type? This is an important question since blood transfusion has become a big part of modern medicine.
Breathing (inspiration and expiration) occurs in a cyclical manner due to the movements of the chest wall and the lungs. The resulting changes in pressure, causes changes in lung volumes.
After you die, your body has valuable uses for medical science -- from education to restoring health to cosmetic surgery. Who wants your corpse? And what will they do with it? You may be surprised!
Reflex action makes it possible to swiftly pull back your hand if you accidentally touch a hot pot, thanks to a pathway of signals called a reflex arc.
This is part one of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It covers the cause and stages of the condition. Warning: Imagery may be disturbing.
The human muscular system is an organ system composed of skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles. Learn about them and what the most-used muscle in the body is.
Anatomy of the Knee involves different structures in the knee joint and how they connect to each other. Knee Anatomy can be subdivided into bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons and muscles.
Few multiple choice questions on mechanical ventilation. Useful for medical, nursing, physiotherapy and respiratory therapy students.
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts control the production and disintegration of bone and the amount of calcium released from the bones into the bloodstream.
Pigments play vital roles in our bodies. These pigments include melanin in the skin, rhodopsin, zeaxanthin, and lutein in the eyes, and hemoglobin in the blood.
Bone marrow is an essential tissue. It contains stem cells that produce all of our blood cells. Bone marrow transplants are used to treat some serious diseases.
The anesthesiologist monitors, and responds to, changes in your vital signs during your entire surgery. Heart rate, rhythm, blood pressure, oxygen level, breathing and other parameters give the anesthesiologist the information needed to keep you safe and comfortable during an anesthetic.
Bulk flow of air in between the environment and the lungs is an important respiratory function. Coordinated, active movements of the thorax and the diaphragm, result in inspiration and expiration.
Everyone know about the physical differences between mean and women. But why are they different anatomically? The answer lies just below our skin in our blood and other cells in the body.
Having a surgical biopsy taken can be traumatic. Waiting for results adds to the stress. Here is a step by step description of how biopsy tissue is processed in the histopathology laboratory.
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a very serious problem. Phage therapy—treatment with viruses that attack bacteria—may be the solution.
Link between neurodegenerative diseases and cancer is being studied since more than a decade. Many factors are known common in pathways resulting in these diseases.
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), otherwise known as sleeping sickness, affecting millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.
Human African trypanosomiasis is a significant tropical disease, affecting around 65 million people per year in over 30 countries. Treatment is particularly difficult as the parasite has evolved several mechanisms to evade and manipulate the host's immune system in order to survive in the host.
Saliva is made by salivary glands and has important functions. The glands may sometimes develop stones. In Sjogren's syndrome, insufficient saliva is made.
Science fiction as a discipline has told us for decades that we can make replacement parts for human beings. In the 2010s, we began to accomplish this by 3D printing biological materials.
Take a tour of Prokaryotes: The most numerous organisms on our planet. Complete with quizzes, videos, links and summary tables. Excellent for A-level and higher
In addition to serving the function of respiration, the respiratory system is involved in providing immunity, in olfaction, in phonation, as a reservoir and a filter for CVS and as a metabolic ground
Do you understand your blood results? Why do doctors need to know what's in your blood? Read this article to find out - in language you can understand.
The respiratory physiology is on the process of incorporation of oxygen in the environment for the utilization of energy from the organic compounds and for the elimination of carbon dioxide
What are Beta Brain Waves? How can beta brainwave entrainment help you to become a more focused and motivated person in school and in your job and more
The pancreas makes a digestive enzyme called trypsin, which digests protein in the small intestine. Trypsin is normally released in an inactive form but sometimes becomes active within the pancreas. This activation may cause pancreatitis.
Ringworm is a dermatophyte, meaning a fungus that feeds on keratin: skin, hair, nails, etc. More specifically, ringworm feeds on the outer layer of skin and hair follicles and this causes the hair to become brittle and break....
Understanding the construction and general functions of the nervous system can assist in identifying the nervous system's role on human behavior.
ABO Blood System | What is the most common blood type? Find out the most common blood types in the ABO blood system.
When someone experiences a heart attack, cells in their heart die. Scientists have found two ways to replace the lost cells in rodents. The techniques may one day work in us.
The wood frog survives freezing. A study of its adaptations for survival may be helpful in understanding human health problems and in the use of organs for transplants.
Vertebrates are a sub-phylum of animals that possess a spinal cord and backbone. But this doesn't mean that they all look the same. This hub looks at the five major vertebrate groups and what makes them unique.
This is an example of a proposal for addressing a clinical issue. The topic is the use of wearable devices for reducing fall risks in geriatric patients.
For more than six decades in the Middle Ages a mysterious disease swept through England killing thousands.
Air flow between the lungs and the environment occurs via a pressure gradient. This hub is on the changes in alveolar and pleural pressure changes in a breathing cycle and the resulting volume changes
Intraocular pressure is defined as the pressure inside the eye. It was what gives our eye their shape and keeps vital structures in the eye in place. But there are other things about the pressure in the eye that can actually cause problems.
Human eye anatomy—a journey through the anatomy of the eye to understand how different structures in the eyeball work together to achieve vision.
You may have heard of many famous twins, long-lost twins, and Siamese twins, but none are quite like our Ronnie and Donnie Galyon.
The deadly nightshade plant, or belladonna, is extremely poisonous. It contains atropine, which is potentially dangerous but has important medical uses.
The hull (or outerlayer) of a corn kernel is made up of mostly cellulose. Cellulose does not break apart easily when chewed and we humans don't have the enzyme to break it down.
This is part two of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It discusses treatment and prevention of the condition. Warning: some imagery may be disturbing.
Paneth cells are found in the glands of the small intestine. They play an important role in keeping the intestinal lining in good condition. A problem with autophagy or unfolded proteins in the cells has been repeatedly linked to Crohn's disease.
This article is about how the inner ear helps to maintain the balance and equilibrium of the body. Read on to know in detail about how the inner ear helps to maintain balance and equilibrium.
The heterozygote advantage is shown in several genetic diseases: cystic fibrosis heterozygotes are resistant to cholera, thalassemia trait confers a benefit for coronary artery disease.
Adrenaline or epinephrine is a hormone made by the adrenal gland. It plays an important role in the fight or flight response and in treating anaphylaxis.
If you're like most people, you have no idea what goes on behind closed doors of your local hospital laboratory. Find out from a Medical Lab Technologist how the labs work and what lab techs do.
At first glance, the names of the muscles of the human body looks difficult to learn. These names are derived from Latin. Muscles names can actually be used as a short cut to learn a muscle's location, shape and it's function.
Which company or agency will do the most to cure neuromuscular diseases, war injuries, and diabetes in the 2010s?
Blood flukes (genus Schistosoma) parasitic flatworms which infect the organ systems of mammals. They are a serious concern in developing countries, with over 250 million cases recorded per year.
Some people believe that NDE is proof of an afterlife. However, science provides alternate, and more plausible, explanations.
The cornea is a resilient part of the eye's anatomy. It is also provides most of the eye's focusing power. This article discusses the structure of the cornea and how it maintains clear vision.
Article answering: Does having a blood transfusion change your DNA? Transfusion cannot change your DNA but bone marrow transplants can change your DNA. So, Does a blood transfusion change your DNA and if so, will it be for the worse? Doubtful. Will a blood transfusion change your DNA in future?
Giant viruses are huge entities compared to other viruses and are bigger than some bacteria. They are often large enough to be seen under a light microscope and contain very large genomes.
Lung compliance is the ability of the lungs to expand. Elastance measures the work that has to be exerted by the muscles of inspiration to expand the lungs. Factors affecting these are discussed here.
Bispecific antibodies can bind two different antigens simultaneously. With over 100 formats in the development it is one of the fastest growing class of investigational drugs.
Students use different methods for retaining information. Know your learning style and maximize your potential. Includes an aromatherapy recipe to aid memory.
Fibronectin attaches cells to the extracellular matrix and controls their behavior. It also helps to stop bleeding and is used in a fetal fibronectin test.
Researchers have found evidence linking the insulin resistance that develops in type 2 diabetes with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. The details need to be clarified, however.
Interstitial fluid bathes cells, giving them nutrients and removing wastes. The interstitium is the space containing the fluid. Some scientists believe that fluid-filled spaces in the body are connected, forming an organ. The spaces may play a role in transporting cancer cells.
Niagen is a precursor in the formation of NAD+ which has been linked to several beneficial effects, including reversing signs of aging.
The 'Spermbot' is the latest breakthrough in nanotechnology, but how does it work and what else could it be used for?
Influenza is one of the most commonly encountered deadly diseases. Due to its high survival rate, people tend to treat it as unimportant, thus aiding in its spread.
Has there been enough research on this subject to make fact-based determinations or are we once again being led by unsupported claims and incomplete science?
When do babies’ eyes change color? Here you'll see some entertaining and informative answers to this question. You'll also see how babies gradually get to their genetically assigned eye color.
Blood clotting or coagulation is a complex process that helps us survive when we're injured. Fibrin threads trap blood cells and stop blood loss.
What are the events of Metaphase? What are the events of Anaphase? How do you distinguish Telophase from Anaphase? What is Cytokinesis? This detailed hub looks at these questions and more. Includes a narrated video of the stages of mitosis
Our skin is an impressive organ that has many functions. For example, it reduces water loss, fights infections, helps regulate body temperature, and makes vitamin D.