The human muscular system is an organ system composed of skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles. Learn about them and what the most-used muscle in the body is.
Science fiction as a discipline has told us for decades that we can make replacement parts for human beings. In the 2010s, we began to accomplish this by 3D printing biological materials.
Students use different methods for retaining information. Know your learning style and maximize your potential. Includes an aromatherapy recipe to aid memory.
Researchers have found that people with osteoarthritis seem to have a lower than normal level of FOXO proteins in their damaged joints. Increasing the protein level might help to treat the disease.
Hydrochloric acid is made in the stomach and is a helpful chemical. However, too much or too little acid or acid in the wrong place can cause problems.
If you're like most people, you have no idea what goes on behind closed doors of your local hospital laboratory. Find out from a Medical Lab Technologist how the labs work and what lab techs do.
The pancreas makes a digestive enzyme called trypsin, which digests protein in the small intestine. Trypsin is normally released in an inactive form but sometimes becomes active within the pancreas. This activation may cause pancreatitis.
Can consciousness survive after death? A disturbing new study discovers brain activity in brains preserved in specimen jars.
Fibronectin attaches cells to the extracellular matrix and controls their behavior. It also helps to stop bleeding and is used in a fetal fibronectin test.
There are three main categories of contrast agents used in veterinary radiology: iodinated, barium sulfate, and negative contrast. Iodinated contrasts are subdivided into ionic and non-ionic. Negative contrasts are subdivided into room air, CO2, and NO.
Intraocular pressure is defined as the pressure inside the eye. It was what gives our eye their shape and keeps vital structures in the eye in place. But there are other things about the pressure in the eye that can actually cause problems.
Several U.S. universities operate outdoor sites where human bodies are left to decompose naturally to aid forensic investigators.
The respiratory system is an amazing and intricate network of tubes and sacs. Here are some surprising facts related to breathing, gas exchange, and sneezing.
Paneth cells are found in the glands of the small intestine. They play an important role in keeping the intestinal lining in good condition. A problem with autophagy or unfolded proteins in the cells has been repeatedly linked to Crohn's disease.
Article answering: Does having a blood transfusion change your DNA? Transfusion cannot change your DNA but bone marrow transplants can change your DNA. So, Does a blood transfusion change your DNA and if so, will it be for the worse? Doubtful. Will a blood transfusion change your DNA in future?
There are many medical advances that are available to trained orthopedic physicians that will heal an injury or chronic pain problem. This article describes the procedures, including stem cell therapy, prolotherapy, platelet rich plasma therapy and acupuncture. These procedures may prevent surgerie.
Influenza is one of the most commonly encountered deadly diseases. Due to its high survival rate, people tend to treat it as unimportant, thus aiding in its spread.
Breathing (inspiration and expiration) occurs in a cyclical manner due to the movements of the chest wall and the lungs. The resulting changes in pressure, causes changes in lung volumes.
Blood flukes (genus Schistosoma) parasitic flatworms which infect the organ systems of mammals. They are a serious concern in developing countries, with over 250 million cases recorded per year.
This article will briefly discuss the uses, duration of action, side effects, adverse effects, contraindications, and more of the drugs acepromazine, ketamine, and propofol in veterinary anesthesia. Tips for achieving a better anesthetic experience when using these drugs are also discussed.
This is part two of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It discusses treatment and prevention of the condition. Warning: some imagery may be disturbing.
Anatomy of the Knee involves different structures in the knee joint and how they connect to each other. Knee Anatomy can be subdivided into bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons and muscles.
Has there been enough research on this subject to make fact-based determinations or are we once again being led by unsupported claims and incomplete science?
Having a surgical biopsy taken can be traumatic. Waiting for results adds to the stress. Here is a step by step description of how biopsy tissue is processed in the histopathology laboratory.
Everyone know about the physical differences between mean and women. But why are they different anatomically? The answer lies just below our skin in our blood and other cells in the body.
Ringworm is a dermatophyte, meaning a fungus that feeds on keratin: skin, hair, nails, etc. More specifically, ringworm feeds on the outer layer of skin and hair follicles and this causes the hair to become brittle and break....
Capnography is the measurement and evaluation of the levels of CO2 in a patient’s exhaled breath, or the end-title CO2 (ETCO2). This is an important component of anesthesia because it helps the anesthetist evaluate the patient’s respiratory rate and the quality of the respirations.
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a very serious problem. Phage therapy—treatment with viruses that attack bacteria—may be the solution.
At first glance, the names of the muscles of the human body looks difficult to learn. These names are derived from Latin. Muscles names can actually be used as a short cut to learn a muscle's location, shape and it's function.
Some of us fall asleep quickly, some toss and turn before drifting off - but we all fall asleep sooner or later. Here's the science behind why we go to sleep.
Lung compliance is the ability of the lungs to expand. Elastance measures the work that has to be exerted by the muscles of inspiration to expand the lungs. Factors affecting these are discussed here.
Bone marrow is an essential tissue. It contains stem cells that produce all of our blood cells. Bone marrow transplants are used to treat some serious diseases.
Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium that can have big effects on humans. It's a common cause of foodborne illness and may cause multiple sclerosis.
The semicircular canals are located in the inner ear and are responsible for detecting motion and acceleration. Disorders of the vestibular system include Meniere's Disease and Benign Peroxysmal Positional Vertigo.
Mother Natures uses colors in weird and wonderful ways. You can see this in the eyes of people with Heterochromia iridum, people with two different colored eyes.
Most everyone has heard of the Five Second Rule, which says that a food is safe to eat after it's been dropped on the floor as long as you pick it up within 5 seconds. However, is this really true? What you are about to find out may shock you.
This is no joke. In 2018, researchers recreated the brains from our ancient non-human cousins and want to study the lumps to understand the mysterious Neanderthal extinction event.
Bone resorption is the process of braking down the bones into its mineral and collagenous constituents through a cellular mechanism. The process may be part of the normal regulation of minerals such as Calcium in the blood or it could also be due to a pathological or disease process, which accelerates the rate of bony breakdown.
Pigments play vital roles in our bodies. These pigments include melanin in the skin, rhodopsin, zeaxanthin, and lutein in the eyes, and hemoglobin in the blood.
Blood type is an important factor to consider in transfusions in order to avoid harmful incompatibility reactions. Scientists have created potentially safe type O red blood cells from other kinds. This may help many people.
After you die, your body has valuable uses for medical science -- from education to restoring health to cosmetic surgery. Who wants your corpse? And what will they do with it? You may be surprised!
Bispecific antibodies can bind two different antigens simultaneously. With over 100 formats in the development it is one of the fastest growing class of investigational drugs.
When someone experiences a heart attack, cells in their heart die. Scientists have found two ways to replace the lost cells in rodents. The techniques may one day work in us.
Surface tension increases the tendency of the alveoli to collapse. Surfactant decreases the surface tension in the lungs and thus decrease the work of breathing, minimizes collapse and oedema.
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), otherwise known as sleeping sickness, affecting millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.
Adrenaline or epinephrine is a hormone made by the adrenal glands. It's important in the stress response. Noradrenaline or norepinephrine is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter and is also involved in the stress response.
Link between neurodegenerative diseases and cancer is being studied since more than a decade. Many factors are known common in pathways resulting in these diseases.
Researchers have found evidence linking the insulin resistance that develops in type 2 diabetes with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. The details need to be clarified, however.
Mucus has vital functions, such as trapping germs in the airways, protecting the stomach lining from an acid attack, and lubricating the passage of materials through the digestive tract. Excess mucus can cause health problems, however. Mucus in the nose is often referred to as snot.
This is an example of a proposal for addressing a clinical issue. The topic is the use of wearable devices for reducing fall risks in geriatric patients.
This is part one of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It covers the cause and stages of the condition. Warning: Imagery may be disturbing.
The cornea is a resilient part of the eye's anatomy. It is also provides most of the eye's focusing power. This article discusses the structure of the cornea and how it maintains clear vision.
Urea is a nitrogen-containing waste substance in the blood and urine that is also made in the lab. It’s used to remove thickened and scaly patches on skin, to moisturize the skin, and to fertilize soil.
Niagen is a precursor in the formation of NAD+ which has been linked to several beneficial effects, including reversing signs of aging.
Estrogen replacement therapy have been in use for the treatment of osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Studies suggest the effectiveness of HRT in preventing dementia if used near the menopause.
When do babies’ eyes change color? Here you'll see some entertaining and informative answers to this question. You'll also see how babies gradually get to their genetically assigned eye color.
Which company or agency will do the most to cure neuromuscular diseases, war injuries, and diabetes in the 2010s?
What are Beta Brain Waves? How can beta brainwave entrainment help you to become a more focused and motivated person in school and in your job and more
Hair loss is a frequently caused side effect of drugs but hair color is another adverse effect that is rare but bothersome. Black or brown hair changing to blond, greying or reddening of hair, and darkening of originally grey hair have been reported in many cases.
Saliva is made by salivary glands and has important functions. The glands may sometimes develop a stone or an infection. In Sjogren's syndrome, insufficient saliva is made. The disease may be accompanied by other symptoms.
The human skeleton has vital functions. It provides support and protection, allows us to move, makes blood cells, and stores fatty acids and minerals.
Some people believe that NDE is proof of an afterlife. However, science provides alternate, and more plausible, explanations.
Air flow between the lungs and the environment occurs via a pressure gradient. This hub is on the changes in alveolar and pleural pressure changes in a breathing cycle and the resulting volume changes
This hub explains the differences between blood types A, B, AB, and O. Positive and negative properties of these types are also explained.
Human African trypanosomiasis is a significant tropical disease, affecting around 65 million people per year in over 30 countries. Treatment is particularly difficult as the parasite has evolved several mechanisms to evade and manipulate the host's immune system in order to survive in the host.
Do you understand your blood results? Why do doctors need to know what's in your blood? Read this article to find out - in language you can understand.
The heterozygote advantage is shown in several genetic diseases: cystic fibrosis heterozygotes are resistant to cholera, thalassemia trait confers a benefit for coronary artery disease.
Influenza viruses have unpleasant and sometimes serious effects. Antibodies to flu viruses made by llamas may enable scientists to create a better treatment.
You may have heard of many famous twins, long-lost twins, and Siamese twins, but none are quite like our Ronnie and Donnie Galyon.
Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and the circle of Willis are important parts of the brain. They are named after the famous scientists who discovered them.
The wood frog survives freezing. A study of its adaptations for survival may be helpful in understanding human health problems and in the use of organs for transplants.
The respiratory physiology is on the process of incorporation of oxygen in the environment for the utilization of energy from the organic compounds and for the elimination of carbon dioxide
Giant viruses are huge entities compared to other viruses and are bigger than some bacteria. They are often large enough to be seen under a light microscope and contain very large genomes.
Neurons are highly specialized cells that transmit electrical and chemical signals to target cells. Their anatomy makes them extremely efficient at receiving and transmitting these signals.
Glaucoma is a vision problem caused by damage to the optic nerve. The pressure in the eyeball is often increased, but the disease is not fully understood. Recent research may change this situation.
The 'Spermbot' is the latest breakthrough in nanotechnology, but how does it work and what else could it be used for?
Understanding the construction and general functions of the nervous system can assist in identifying the nervous system's role on human behavior.
Reflex action makes it possible to swiftly pull back your hand if you accidentally touch a hot pot, thanks to a pathway of signals called a reflex arc.
What is the rarest blood type? This is an important question since blood transfusion has become a big part of modern medicine.
Giardia is an interesting parasite that causes an unpleasant intestinal disorder called giardiasis. Understanding the parasite's features and behaviour may lead to better treatments for the disorder.
A shocking amount of people believe that vaccinations cause autism. This article proves that to be untrue.
Take a tour of Prokaryotes: The most numerous organisms on our planet. Complete with quizzes, videos, links and summary tables. Excellent for A-level and higher
Bulk flow of air in between the environment and the lungs is an important respiratory function. Coordinated, active movements of the thorax and the diaphragm, result in inspiration and expiration.
Vertebrates are a sub-phylum of animals that possess a spinal cord and backbone. But this doesn't mean that they all look the same. This hub looks at the five major vertebrate groups and what makes them unique.
This is an example of a brief review of an article covering a current event in nursing. This is a common assignment to encounter in nursing school.
The tongue is a unique part of the body, and it is a muscle that never tires. The future may see the tongue becoming a biometric authentication as each person’s tongue is totally unique. The way the taste buds work is explained. Potential problems reflected by the tongue is explained.
The heart does more than pump blood. It is also an endocrine gland that secretes hormones called natriuretic peptides to control blood volume and pressure by targeting receptors in the kidneys.
Lung volumes and capacities tend to vary with age, sex, ethnicity and built. Alterations in the lung volumes are used to diagnose obstructive and restrictive lung diseases.
Our skin is an impressive organ that has many functions. For example, it reduces water loss, fights infections, helps regulate body temperature, and makes vitamin D.
This hub is not just about learning and memorizing, but about being able to logically work out what a term means by simple methods of understanding the roots.
Human eye anatomy—a journey through the anatomy of the eye to understand how different structures in the eyeball work together to achieve vision.
ABO Blood System | What is the most common blood type? Find out the most common blood types in the ABO blood system.
In addition to serving the function of respiration, the respiratory system is involved in providing immunity, in olfaction, in phonation, as a reservoir and a filter for CVS and as a metabolic ground
What are the events of Metaphase? What are the events of Anaphase? How do you distinguish Telophase from Anaphase? What is Cytokinesis? This detailed hub looks at these questions and more. Includes a narrated video of the stages of mitosis
The deadly nightshade plant, or belladonna, is extremely poisonous. It contains atropine, which is potentially dangerous but has important medical uses.
This article is about how the inner ear helps to maintain the balance and equilibrium of the body. Read on to know in detail about how the inner ear helps to maintain balance and equilibrium.
For more than six decades in the Middle Ages a mysterious disease swept through England killing thousands.
The hull (or outerlayer) of a corn kernel is made up of mostly cellulose. Cellulose does not break apart easily when chewed, and we humans don't have the enzyme to break it down.
The anesthesiologist monitors, and responds to, changes in your vital signs during your entire surgery. Heart rate, rhythm, blood pressure, oxygen level, breathing and other parameters give the anesthesiologist the information needed to keep you safe and comfortable during an anesthetic.
Do you have a hernia repair scheduled? Are you wondering what surgical mesh is? This article will give tell you what mesh is, what problems may occur, and how to help the healing process.
Misfolded proteins are believed to be the cause of many serious human diseases. Pharmacoperones are chemicals that may be able to correct misfolding.
The developing world has a large number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Learn about the factors influencing the spread of HIV/AIDS in the developing countries, and see some ways to stop the epidemic.
Some sunscreens contain tiny nanoparticles that may be detrimental to health. English ivy produces nanoparticles that may make a safer sunscreen.