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  • Researchers have found that people with osteoarthritis seem to have a lower than normal level of FOXO proteins in their damaged joints. Increasing the protein level might help to treat the disease.

    FOXO Proteins in Joint Health and Osteoarthritis

    FOXO Proteins in Joint Health and Osteoarthritis

    by Linda Crampton28

  • If you're like most people, you have no idea what goes on behind closed doors of your local hospital laboratory. Find out from a Medical Lab Technologist how the labs work and what lab techs do.

    What Does a Hospital Medical Lab Technologist Do?

    What Does a Hospital Medical Lab Technologist Do?

    by PurpleOne8

  • The pancreas makes a digestive enzyme called trypsin, which digests protein in the small intestine. Trypsin is normally released in an inactive form but sometimes becomes active within the pancreas. This activation may cause pancreatitis.

    The Pancreas: Trypsin, Protein Digestion, and Pancreatitis

    The Pancreas: Trypsin, Protein Digestion, and Pancreatitis

    by Linda Crampton40

  • There are three main categories of contrast agents used in veterinary radiology: iodinated, barium sulfate, and negative contrast. Iodinated contrasts are subdivided into ionic and non-ionic. Negative contrasts are subdivided into room air, CO2, and NO.

    Contrast Agents in Veterinary Radiology

    Contrast Agents in Veterinary Radiology

    by Liz Hardin0

  • Intraocular pressure is defined as the pressure inside the eye. It was what gives our eye their shape and keeps vital structures in the eye in place. But there are other things about the pressure in the eye that can actually cause problems.

    Definition of Intraocular Pressure

    Definition of Intraocular Pressure

    by Melissa Flagg COA OSC11

  • Paneth cells are found in the glands of the small intestine. They play an important role in keeping the intestinal lining in good condition. A problem with autophagy or unfolded proteins in the cells has been repeatedly linked to Crohn's disease.

    Paneth Cells and Their Association With Crohn's Disease

    Paneth Cells and Their Association With Crohn's Disease

    by Linda Crampton26

  • Article answering: Does having a blood transfusion change your DNA? Transfusion cannot change your DNA but bone marrow transplants can change your DNA. So, Does a blood transfusion change your DNA and if so, will it be for the worse? Doubtful. Will a blood transfusion change your DNA in future?

    Does Having a Blood Transfusion Change Your DNA?

    Does Having a Blood Transfusion Change Your DNA?

    by Justin Muir0

  • There are many medical advances that are available to trained orthopedic physicians that will heal an injury or chronic pain problem. This article describes the procedures, including stem cell therapy, prolotherapy, platelet rich plasma therapy and acupuncture. These procedures may prevent surgerie.

    Spectrum of Orthopedic Healthcare Without Surgery

    Spectrum of Orthopedic Healthcare Without Surgery

    by Pamela Oglesby4

  • Influenza is one of the most commonly encountered deadly diseases. Due to its high survival rate, people tend to treat it as unimportant, thus aiding in its spread.

    The Epidemiology of Influenza

    The Epidemiology of Influenza

    by Vince1

  • Breathing (inspiration and expiration) occurs in a cyclical manner due to the movements of the chest wall and the lungs. The resulting changes in pressure, causes changes in lung volumes.

    Lung Volumes and Capacities

    Lung Volumes and Capacities

    by Chanaka Kahathuduwa2

  • Blood flukes (genus Schistosoma) parasitic flatworms which infect the organ systems of mammals. They are a serious concern in developing countries, with over 250 million cases recorded per year.

    Life History of the Blood Fluke (Schistosoma sp.)

    Life History of the Blood Fluke (Schistosoma sp.)

    by Jack Dazley0

  • This article will briefly discuss the uses, duration of action, side effects, adverse effects, contraindications, and more of the drugs acepromazine, ketamine, and propofol in veterinary anesthesia. Tips for achieving a better anesthetic experience when using these drugs are also discussed.

    Acepromazine, Ketamine, and Propofol in Veterinary Anesthesia

    Acepromazine, Ketamine, and Propofol in Veterinary Anesthesia

    by Liz Hardin2

  • This is part two of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It discusses treatment and prevention of the condition. Warning: some imagery may be disturbing.

    Pressure Ulcers: Treatment and Prevention

    Pressure Ulcers: Treatment and Prevention

    by Vince0

  • Anatomy of the Knee involves different structures in the knee joint and how they connect to each other. Knee Anatomy can be subdivided into bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons and muscles.

    Anatomy of the Knee Joint

    Anatomy of the Knee Joint

    by Edmund Custers0

  • Everyone know about the physical differences between mean and women. But why are they different anatomically? The answer lies just below our skin in our blood and other cells in the body.

    Biological Differences Between Men and Women

    Biological Differences Between Men and Women

    by Melvin Porter8

  • Ringworm is a dermatophyte, meaning a fungus that feeds on keratin: skin, hair, nails, etc. More specifically, ringworm feeds on the outer layer of skin and hair follicles and this causes the hair to become brittle and break....

    A Micrscopic Look at Ringworm

    A Micrscopic Look at Ringworm

    by HappyHerper1

  • Capnography is the measurement and evaluation of the levels of CO2 in a patient’s exhaled breath, or the end-title CO2 (ETCO2). This is an important component of anesthesia because it helps the anesthetist evaluate the patient’s respiratory rate and the quality of the respirations.

    Capnography in Veterinary Anesthesia

    Capnography in Veterinary Anesthesia

    by Liz Hardin0

  • At first glance, the names of the muscles of the human body looks difficult to learn. These names are derived from Latin. Muscles names can actually be used as a short cut to learn a muscle's location, shape and it's function.

    The Latin Roots of Muscles Names

    The Latin Roots of Muscles Names

    by Edmund Custers0

  • Lung compliance is the ability of the lungs to expand. Elastance measures the work that has to be exerted by the muscles of inspiration to expand the lungs. Factors affecting these are discussed here.

    Lung Compliance and Elastance

    Lung Compliance and Elastance

    by Chanaka Kahathuduwa2

  • The semicircular canals are located in the inner ear and are responsible for detecting motion and acceleration. Disorders of the vestibular system include Meniere's Disease and Benign Peroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    What Are the Semicircular Ear Canals?

    What Are the Semicircular Ear Canals?

    by Leah Lefler8

  • Most everyone has heard of the Five Second Rule, which says that a food is safe to eat after it's been dropped on the floor as long as you pick it up within 5 seconds. However, is this really true? What you are about to find out may shock you.

    Is the Five Second Rule Accurate?

    Is the Five Second Rule Accurate?

    by Kortney Tholen0

  • Bone resorption is the process of braking down the bones into its mineral and collagenous constituents through a cellular mechanism. The process may be part of the normal regulation of minerals such as Calcium in the blood or it could also be due to a pathological or disease process, which accelerates the rate of bony breakdown.

    The Process of Bone Resorption Explained

    The Process of Bone Resorption Explained

    by Dr Pandula1

  • Blood type is an important factor to consider in transfusions in order to avoid harmful incompatibility reactions. Scientists have created potentially safe type O red blood cells from other kinds. This may help many people.

    Blood Types and Producing Type O With Enzymes From Microbes

    Blood Types and Producing Type O With Enzymes From Microbes

    by Linda Crampton24

  • Bispecific antibodies can bind two different antigens simultaneously. With over 100 formats in the development it is one of the fastest growing class of investigational drugs.

    Bispecific Antibodies

    Bispecific Antibodies

    by Sherry Haynes0

  • Surface tension increases the tendency of the alveoli to collapse. Surfactant decreases the surface tension in the lungs and thus decrease the work of breathing, minimizes collapse and oedema.

    Surfactant  - Lowering Pulmonary Surface Tension

    Surfactant - Lowering Pulmonary Surface Tension

    by Chanaka Kahathuduwa0

  • Mucus has vital functions, such as trapping germs in the airways, protecting the stomach lining from an acid attack, and lubricating the passage of materials through the digestive tract. Excess mucus can cause health problems, however. Mucus in the nose is often referred to as snot.

    Mucus in the Human Body: Functions and Health Problems

    Mucus in the Human Body: Functions and Health Problems

    by Linda Crampton43

  • This is an example of a proposal for addressing a clinical issue. The topic is the use of wearable devices for reducing fall risks in geriatric patients.

    Wearable Devices to Reduce Fall Risks

    Wearable Devices to Reduce Fall Risks

    by Vince0

  • This is part one of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It covers the cause and stages of the condition. Warning: Imagery may be disturbing.

    Pressure Ulcers: Cause

    Pressure Ulcers: Cause

    by Vince0

  • The cornea is a resilient part of the eye's anatomy. It is also provides most of the eye's focusing power. This article discusses the structure of the cornea and how it maintains clear vision.

    Definition of Cornea

    Definition of Cornea

    by Melissa Flagg COA OSC6

  • Urea is a nitrogen-containing waste substance in the blood and urine that is also made in the lab. It’s used to remove thickened and scaly patches on skin, to moisturize the skin, and to fertilize soil.

    Urea in Blood, Urine, Skin Creams, and Fertilizer

    Urea in Blood, Urine, Skin Creams, and Fertilizer

    by Linda Crampton8

  • When do babies’ eyes change color? Here you'll see some entertaining and informative answers to this question. You'll also see how babies gradually get to their genetically assigned eye color.

    When do babies’ eyes change color?

    When do babies’ eyes change color?

    by Edmund Custers0

  • Hair loss is a frequently caused side effect of drugs but hair color is another adverse effect that is rare but bothersome. Black or brown hair changing to blond, greying or reddening of hair, and darkening of originally grey hair have been reported in many cases.

    Drugs That Induce Hair Color Changes

    Drugs That Induce Hair Color Changes

    by Sherry Haynes4

  • Air flow between the lungs and the environment occurs via a pressure gradient. This hub is on the changes in alveolar and pleural pressure changes in a breathing cycle and the resulting volume changes

    Lung Pressures and Lung Compliance

    Lung Pressures and Lung Compliance

    by Chanaka Kahathuduwa3

  • This hub explains the differences between blood types A, B, AB, and O. Positive and negative properties of these types are also explained.

    Blood Type Properties

    Blood Type Properties

    by Btryon8678

  • The respiratory physiology is on the process of incorporation of oxygen in the environment for the utilization of energy from the organic compounds and for the elimination of carbon dioxide

    Respiratory Physiology - Introduction

    Respiratory Physiology - Introduction

    by Chanaka Kahathuduwa2

  • Neurons are highly specialized cells that transmit electrical and chemical signals to target cells. Their anatomy makes them extremely efficient at receiving and transmitting these signals.

    Structure of a Neuron

    Structure of a Neuron

    by Melissa Flagg COA OSC10

  • Giardia is an interesting parasite that causes an unpleasant intestinal disorder called giardiasis. Understanding the parasite's features and behaviour may lead to better treatments for the disorder.

    Giardia in the Intestine: The Parasite and Giardiasis

    Giardia in the Intestine: The Parasite and Giardiasis

    by Linda Crampton32

  • Take a tour of Prokaryotes: The most numerous organisms on our planet. Complete with quizzes, videos, links and summary tables. Excellent for A-level and higher

    Prokaryotic Cell Structure: A Visual Guide

    Prokaryotic Cell Structure: A Visual Guide

    by Rhys Baker2

  • Bulk flow of air in between the environment and the lungs is an important respiratory function. Coordinated, active movements of the thorax and the diaphragm, result in inspiration and expiration.

    Pulmonary Mechanics

    Pulmonary Mechanics

    by Chanaka Kahathuduwa0

  • Vertebrates are a sub-phylum of animals that possess a spinal cord and backbone. But this doesn't mean that they all look the same. This hub looks at the five major vertebrate groups and what makes them unique.

    What are the 5 Main Vertebrate Groups?

    What are the 5 Main Vertebrate Groups?

    by Rhys Baker26

  • The tongue is a unique part of the body, and it is a muscle that never tires. The future may see the tongue becoming a biometric authentication as each person’s tongue is totally unique. The way the taste buds work is explained. Potential problems reflected by the tongue is explained.

    Facts About the Tongue You Might Not Know

    Facts About the Tongue You Might Not Know

    by Pamela Oglesby20

  • The heart does more than pump blood. It is also an endocrine gland that secretes hormones called natriuretic peptides to control blood volume and pressure by targeting receptors in the kidneys.

    The Heart as an Endocrine Gland

    The Heart as an Endocrine Gland

    by Melvin Porter3

  • Human eye anatomy—a journey through the anatomy of the eye to understand how different structures in the eyeball work together to achieve vision.

    Anatomy of the Eye: Human Eye Anatomy

    Anatomy of the Eye: Human Eye Anatomy

    by Edmund Custers9

  • In addition to serving the function of respiration, the respiratory system is involved in providing immunity, in olfaction, in phonation, as a reservoir and a filter for CVS and as a metabolic ground

    Non-Respiratory Functions of the Respiratory System

    Non-Respiratory Functions of the Respiratory System

    by Chanaka Kahathuduwa7

  • For more than six decades in the Middle Ages a mysterious disease swept through England killing thousands.

    England’s Sweating Sickness

    England’s Sweating Sickness

    by Rupert Taylor6

  • The hull (or outerlayer) of a corn kernel is made up of mostly cellulose. Cellulose does not break apart easily when chewed, and we humans don't have the enzyme to break it down.

    Why Does Corn Come Out Whole in My Poop?

    Why Does Corn Come Out Whole in My Poop?

    by Barkley Rosehill42

  • The anesthesiologist monitors, and responds to, changes in your vital signs during your entire surgery. Heart rate, rhythm, blood pressure, oxygen level, breathing and other parameters give the anesthesiologist the information needed to keep you safe and comfortable during an anesthetic.

    Patient Monitoring during Anesthesia

    Patient Monitoring during Anesthesia

    by TahoeDoc5

  • Do you have a hernia repair scheduled? Are you wondering what surgical mesh is? This article will give tell you what mesh is, what problems may occur, and how to help the healing process.

    What Is Surgical Mesh?

    What Is Surgical Mesh?

    by Kari Poulsen22

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