Giardia is an interesting parasite that causes an unpleasant intestinal disorder called giardiasis. Understanding the parasite's features and behaviour may lead to better treatments for the disorder.
Some of us fall asleep quickly, some toss and turn before drifting off - but we all fall asleep sooner or later. Here's the science behind why we go to sleep.
Bispecific antibodies can bind two different antigens simultaneously. With over 100 formats in the development it is one of the fastest growing class of investigational drugs.
If you're like most people, you have no idea what goes on behind closed doors of your local hospital laboratory. Find out from a Medical Lab Technologist how the labs work and what lab techs do.
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a highly contagious, infectious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1). It causes acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. There is no treatment currently, though vaccination is an effective preventative method.
This is an example of a proposal for addressing a clinical issue. The topic is the use of wearable devices for reducing fall risks in geriatric patients.
Surface tension increases the tendency of the alveoli to collapse. Surfactant decreases the surface tension in the lungs and thus decrease the work of breathing, minimizes collapse and oedema.
Interstitial fluid bathes cells, providing nutrients and removing wastes. The interstitium is the space containing the fluid. Some scientists believe that fluid-filled spaces in the body are connected, forming an organ.
The pancreas makes a digestive enzyme called trypsin, which digests protein in the small intestine. Trypsin is released in an inactive form but sometimes becomes active within the pancreas. This activation may cause pancreatitis.
Researchers have found that people with osteoarthritis seem to have a lower than normal level of FOXO proteins in their damaged joints. Increasing the protein level might help to treat the disease.
Lung compliance is the ability of the lungs to expand. Elastance measures the work that has to be exerted by the muscles of inspiration to expand the lungs. Factors affecting these are discussed here.
This hub explains the differences between blood types A, B, AB, and O. Positive and negative properties of these types are also explained.
Anatomy of the Knee involves different structures in the knee joint and how they connect to each other. Knee Anatomy can be subdivided into bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons and muscles.
This is no joke. In 2018, researchers recreated the brains from our ancient non-human cousins and want to study the lumps to understand the mysterious Neanderthal extinction event.
Blood flukes (genus Schistosoma) parasitic flatworms which infect the organ systems of mammals. They are a serious concern in developing countries, with over 250 million cases recorded per year.
The urinary system is the excretory system of the body. The nephron does all the work of the Urinary System. Find out how the nephron works.
ABO Blood System | What is the most common blood type? Find out the most common blood types in the ABO blood system.
Hair loss is a frequently caused side effect of drugs but hair color is another adverse effect that is rare but bothersome. Black or brown hair changing to blond, greying or reddening of hair, and darkening of originally grey hair have been reported in many cases.
Link between neurodegenerative diseases and cancer is being studied since more than a decade. Many factors are known common in pathways resulting in these diseases.
Recently, someone told me that eating mangoes before using marijuana makes the high more intense. I decided to see what the literature has to say about that. Bottom line: Probably more auto-suggestion than chemistry.
Could the Black Death happen again? People still contract the bubonic plague (black death). Climate change and genetic mutations could cause another pandemic.
Urea is a nitrogen-containing waste substance in the blood and urine. It's also made in the lab. It’s added to creams for certain skin problems and can fertilize soil.
The human muscular system is an organ system composed of skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles. Learn about them and what the most-used muscle in the body is.
This hub is not just about learning and memorizing, but about being able to logically work out what a term means by simple methods of understanding the roots.
Giant viruses are huge entities compared to other viruses and are bigger than some bacteria. They are often large enough to be seen under a light microscope and contain very large genomes.
What is the rarest blood type? This is an important question since blood transfusion has become a big part of modern medicine.
Lung volumes and capacities tend to vary with age, sex, ethnicity and built. Alterations in the lung volumes are used to diagnose obstructive and restrictive lung diseases.
This is part one of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It covers the cause and stages of the condition. Warning: Imagery may be disturbing.
Link of common heartburn medicines with the risk of developing kidney injury has gained increased attention from the researchers in the past few years. A recent study reports, yet again, the link of these drug with kidney diseases. This article includes everything you need to know.
The semicircular canals are located in the inner ear and are responsible for detecting motion and acceleration. Disorders of the vestibular system include Meniere's Disease and Benign Peroxysmal Positional Vertigo.
Reflex action makes it possible to swiftly pull back your hand if you accidentally touch a hot pot, thanks to a pathway of signals called a reflex arc.
Estrogen replacement therapy have been in use for the treatment of osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Studies suggest the effectiveness of HRT in preventing dementia if used near the menopause.
After you die, your body has valuable uses for medical science -- from education to restoring health to cosmetic surgery. Who wants your corpse? And what will they do with it? You may be surprised!
The heart does more than pump blood. It is also an endocrine gland that secretes hormones called natriuretic peptides to control blood volume and pressure by targeting receptors in the kidneys.
When someone experiences a heart attack, cells in their heart die. Scientists have found two ways to replace the lost cells in rodents. The techniques may one day work in us.
Everyone know about the physical differences between mean and women. But why are they different anatomically? The answer lies just below our skin in our blood and other cells in the body.
Vertebrates are a sub-phylum of animals that possess a spinal cord and backbone. But this doesn't mean that they all look the same. This hub looks at the five major vertebrate groups and what makes them unique.
What are the events of Metaphase? What are the events of Anaphase? How do you distinguish Telophase from Anaphase? What is Cytokinesis? This detailed hub looks at these questions and more. Includes a narrated video of the stages of mitosis
In addition to serving the function of respiration, the respiratory system is involved in providing immunity, in olfaction, in phonation, as a reservoir and a filter for CVS and as a metabolic ground
You may have heard of many famous twins, long-lost twins, and Siamese twins, but none are quite like our Ronnie and Donnie Galyon.
Researchers have found evidence linking the insulin resistance that develops in type 2 diabetes with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. The details need to be clarified.
Several U.S. universities operate outdoor sites where human bodies are left to decompose naturally to aid forensic investigators.
This article will briefly discuss the uses, duration of action, side effects, adverse effects, contraindications, and more of the drugs acepromazine, ketamine, and propofol in veterinary anesthesia. Tips for achieving a better anesthetic experience when using these drugs are also discussed.
This article explains why Christian Science & medicine are compatible and that Mary Baker Eddy never created a rule that Christian Scientists should abstain from taking medicine or going to doctors.
The deadly nightshade plant, or belladonna, is extremely poisonous. It contains atropine, a potentially dangerous chemical that has some important medical uses.
Bone resorption is the process of braking down the bones into its mineral and collagenous constituents through a cellular mechanism. The process may be part of the normal regulation of minerals such as Calcium in the blood or it could also be due to a pathological or disease process, which accelerates the rate of bony breakdown.
Fibronectin attaches cells to the extracellular matrix and controls their behaviour. It also helps to stop bleeding and is used in a fetal fibronectin test.
Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium that is a common cause of foodborne illness. It might also cause some cases of multiple sclerosis.
Air flow between the lungs and the environment occurs via a pressure gradient. This hub is on the changes in alveolar and pleural pressure changes in a breathing cycle and the resulting volume changes
Human eye anatomy—a journey through the anatomy of the eye to understand how different structures in the eyeball work together to achieve vision.
Misfolded proteins are believed to be the cause of many serious human diseases. Pharmacoperones are chemicals that may be able to correct misfolding.
Our skin is an impressive organ that has many functions. For example, it reduces water loss, fights infections, helps regulate body temperature, and makes vitamin D.
The respiratory physiology is on the process of incorporation of oxygen in the environment for the utilization of energy from the organic compounds and for the elimination of carbon dioxide
Often, effects of a drug on a one’s weight depend on other reasons like aging, diet, medical history, activity, and insulin resistance. Medicines for diabetes, depression, mood disorders, high blood pressure, allergy, and some hormones are some of the meds known to be involved in causing weight gain
What are Beta Brain Waves? How can beta brainwave entrainment help you to become a more focused and motivated person in school and in your job and more
Drug allergies are an immune-mediated type of adverse drug reactions. Though these reactions are unpredictable for the most part, genetic polymorphisms of certain genes can predispose patients to allergy.
The anesthesiologist monitors, and responds to, changes in your vital signs during your entire surgery. Heart rate, rhythm, blood pressure, oxygen level, breathing and other parameters give the anesthesiologist the information needed to keep you safe and comfortable during an anesthetic.
Students use different methods for retaining information. Know your learning style and maximize your potential. Includes an aromatherapy recipe to aid memory.
Paneth cells are found in the glands of the small intestine. They play an important role in keeping the intestinal lining healthy. Crohn's disease has been linked to a problem with autophagy or unfolded proteins in the cells.
This article is about how the inner ear helps to maintain the balance and equilibrium of the body. Read on to know in detail about how the inner ear helps to maintain balance and equilibrium.
Our skeleton and its bones have vital functions. The skeleton provides support and protection, enables us to move, makes blood cells, stores minerals, and does many other jobs.
Ringworm is a dermatophyte, meaning a fungus that feeds on keratin: skin, hair, nails, etc. More specifically, ringworm feeds on the outer layer of skin and hair follicles and this causes the hair to become brittle and break....
Bone marrow contains stem cells. These produce blood cells and other important cell types. Bone marrow transplants are used to treat certain diseases.
Which company or agency will do the most to cure neuromuscular diseases, war injuries, and diabetes in the 2010s?
The tongue is a unique part of the body, and it is a muscle that never tires. The future may see the tongue becoming a biometric authentication as each person’s tongue is totally unique. The way the taste buds work is explained. Potential problems reflected by the tongue is explained.
Understanding the construction and general functions of the nervous system can assist in identifying the nervous system's role on human behavior.
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is becoming a very serious problem. Phage therapy—treatment with bacteriophages or viruses that attack bacteria—might be a solution.
Article answering: Does having a blood transfusion change your DNA? Transfusion cannot change your DNA but bone marrow transplants can change your DNA. So, Does a blood transfusion change your DNA and if so, will it be for the worse? Doubtful. Will a blood transfusion change your DNA in future?
There are many medical advances that are available to trained orthopedic physicians that will heal an injury or chronic pain problem. This article describes the procedures, including stem cell therapy, prolotherapy, platelet rich plasma therapy and acupuncture. These procedures may prevent surgerie.
Breathing (inspiration and expiration) occurs in a cyclical manner due to the movements of the chest wall and the lungs. The resulting changes in pressure, causes changes in lung volumes.
Hydrochloric acid is made in the stomach and is a very helpful chemical. Too much or too little acid or acid in the wrong place can cause problems, however.
Having a surgical biopsy taken can be traumatic. Waiting for results adds to the stress. Here is a step by step description of how biopsy tissue is processed in the histopathology laboratory.
Every day it seems like there's a new research study being talked about, but is that talk accurate? And why does today's study say the opposite to last week's? Improving your research literacy makes it easier to cut through the sensationalist headlines and understand what studies really mean.
Potassium Iodide pills are given to victims of radiation exposure. This form of iodine blocks the radioactive iodine from binding to receptor sites in the thyroid. Chernobyl victims suffered from thyroid cancer, and the danger is elevated with the recent meltdown at the Fukushima nuclear reactor.
Some sunscreens contain tiny nanoparticles that may be harmful in certain situations. The nanoparticles in an English ivy secretion might make a safer sunscreen.
Take a tour of Prokaryotes: The most numerous organisms on our planet. Complete with quizzes, videos, links and summary tables. Excellent for A-level and higher
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts control the production and disintegration of bone and the amount of calcium released from the bones into the bloodstream.
The cornea is a resilient part of the eye's anatomy. It is also provides most of the eye's focusing power. This article discusses the structure of the cornea and how it maintains clear vision.
Blood clotting or coagulation is a complex process that helps us survive when we're injured. Fibrin threads trap blood cells and stop blood loss.
When do babies’ eyes change color? Here you'll see some entertaining and informative answers to this question. You'll also see how babies gradually get to their genetically assigned eye color.
For more than six decades in the Middle Ages a mysterious disease swept through England killing thousands.
Can consciousness survive after death? A disturbing new study discovers brain activity in brains preserved in specimen jars.
Most everyone has heard of the Five Second Rule, which says that a food is safe to eat after it's been dropped on the floor as long as you pick it up within 5 seconds. However, is this really true? What you are about to find out may shock you.
Niagen is a precursor in the formation of NAD+ which has been linked to several beneficial effects, including reversing signs of aging.
Glaucoma is a vision problem caused by damage to the optic nerve. The pressure in the eyeball is often increased, but the disease is not fully understood. Recent research may change this situation.
The 'Spermbot' is the latest breakthrough in nanotechnology, but how does it work and what else could it be used for?
Influenza is one of the most commonly encountered deadly diseases. Due to its high survival rate, people tend to treat it as unimportant, thus aiding in its spread.
Influenza viruses have unpleasant and sometimes serious effects. Antibodies to flu viruses made by llamas may enable scientists to create a better treatment.
At first glance, the names of the muscles of the human body looks difficult to learn. These names are derived from Latin. Muscles names can actually be used as a short cut to learn a muscle's location, shape and it's function.
Has there been enough research on this subject to make fact-based determinations or are we once again being led by unsupported claims and incomplete science?
The respiratory system is an amazing and intricate network of tubes and sacs. Here are some surprising facts about the lungs, breathing, gas exchange, and sneezing.
Human African trypanosomiasis is a significant tropical disease, affecting around 65 million people per year in over 30 countries. Treatment is particularly difficult as the parasite has evolved several mechanisms to evade and manipulate the host's immune system in order to survive in the host.
The heterozygote advantage is shown in several genetic diseases: cystic fibrosis heterozygotes are resistant to cholera, thalassemia trait confers a benefit for coronary artery disease.
Saliva is made by salivary glands and has important functions. The glands may sometimes develop a stone or an infection. In Sjogren's syndrome, insufficient saliva is made.
Pigments play vital roles in our bodies. These pigments include melanin in the skin, rhodopsin, zeaxanthin, and lutein in the eyes, and hemoglobin in the blood.
Neurons are highly specialized cells that transmit electrical and chemical signals to target cells. Their anatomy makes them extremely efficient at receiving and transmitting these signals.
The developing world has a large number of people living with HIV/AIDS. Learn about the factors influencing the spread of HIV/AIDS in the developing countries, and see some ways to stop the epidemic.
The hull (or outerlayer) of a corn kernel is made up of mostly cellulose. Cellulose does not break apart easily when chewed, and we humans don't have the enzyme to break it down.
They welcome us into life, tweak our health and wear authoritative white jackets. Doctors are behind most medical studies, but they sometimes become the subject.
The Black Death, or bubonic plague, did not die with its victims all those centuries ago. It is alive and killing right here in the 21st century!
This is part two of a two part article on Pressure Ulcers (also known as "bed sores"). It discusses treatment and prevention of the condition. Warning: some imagery may be disturbing.
Capnography is the measurement and evaluation of the levels of CO2 in a patient’s exhaled breath, or the end-title CO2 (ETCO2). This is an important component of anesthesia because it helps the anesthetist evaluate the patient’s respiratory rate and the quality of the respirations.
Do you understand your blood results? Why do doctors need to know what's in your blood? Read this article to find out - in language you can understand.
This is an example of a brief review of an article covering a current event in nursing. This is a common assignment to encounter in nursing school.
Science fiction as a discipline has told us for decades that we can make replacement parts for human beings. In the 2010s, we began to accomplish this by 3D printing biological materials.
A shocking amount of people believe that vaccinations cause autism. This article proves that to be untrue.
Mother Natures uses colors in weird and wonderful ways. You can see this in the eyes of people with Heterochromia iridum, people with two different colored eyes.
Do you have a hernia repair scheduled? Are you wondering what surgical mesh is? This article will give tell you what mesh is, what problems may occur, and how to help the healing process.
Some people believe that NDE is proof of an afterlife. However, science provides alternate, and more plausible, explanations.
Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), otherwise known as sleeping sickness, affecting millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.
The completion of the Human Genome Project marked a dramatic shift in the understanding of cancer. As a result, the past decade has been one of exploration into novel approaches to treating cancer and new drug discovery, such as targeted cancer therapy.
Mucus is a slippery liquid that has vital functions in our body. An excessive amount of mucus or a change in its appearance may indicate the presence of a health problem.
Educational and medical research agree with extensive findings of major universities and the Kennedy Center for the Arts. This research shows that music, the arts, and speaking to infants and young children - and even the brain damaged adult and older senior citizens - help the human brain to grow and advance.
Bulk flow of air in between the environment and the lungs is an important respiratory function. Coordinated, active movements of the thorax and the diaphragm, result in inspiration and expiration.
Nearly 1,500 in Ohio need healthy lung transplants annually, but there are not enough donor lungs for them all. That changes now, because a leading university hospital can fix damaged lungs fast.
Intraocular pressure is defined as the pressure inside the eye. It was what gives our eye their shape and keeps vital structures in the eye in place. But there are other things about the pressure in the eye that can actually cause problems.
There are three main categories of contrast agents used in veterinary radiology: iodinated, barium sulfate, and negative contrast. Iodinated contrasts are subdivided into ionic and non-ionic. Negative contrasts are subdivided into room air, CO2, and NO.
Blood type is an important factor to consider in transfusions in order to avoid incompatibility reactions. Scientists have created potentially safe type O red blood cells from other kinds.